Supporting LDCs to strengthen national legislative and policy responses in line with international climate commitments

June 2018 to ongoing

We help LDCs to strengthen their institutional, policy and legislative environments for enabling long-term national climate action, and thus drive global ambition to implement the Paris Agreement.

Landscape in Punakha, Bhutan

The effective implementation of the Paris Agreement is dependent on national action. We support least developed countries (LDCs) to strengthen institutional, policy and legislative structures at the national level through engagement with governments and parliaments. We will also work to promote knowledge and experience sharing at regional and global levels. 

This work builds on IIED’s research and engagement in developing national climate change policies, strategies and action plans in LDCs such as Nepal, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Cambodia, Myanmar and Rwanda, since 2011. 

Developing national structures, policies and legislation to implement the Paris Agreement

In order to implement the various commitments under the Paris Agreement, including their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), many LDCs will require assessing existing policy and legislative frameworks and amending them or developing new ones. Most recently IIED has been providing support to develop national climate change policies in the Gambia and Myanmar that take into account commitments at the international level. 

We also support LDC parliamentarians to engage in efforts to implement the Paris Agreement at the national level. In the past, this has been done in collaboration with the Inter Parliamentary Union (IPU), as well as directly with in-country parliamentary committees and staff

IIED helps to raise awareness of LDC parliamentarians on issues related to the Paris Agreement and its implementation, including national ratification processes. We also facilitate knowledge and experience sharing between parliaments as well as meetings of national parliamentary committees.

Regional experience sharing workshops

In collaboration with in-country partners (such as Sri Lanka-based NGO Janathakshan), we host regional experience-sharing workshops for policymakers that provide an opportunity for countries, in particular LDCs, to share their experiences of country-driven climate action. 

Although each country operates within distinct political, institutional, socioeconomic and environmental contexts, sharing experiences with each other is invaluable to support mutual learning. There are many transferable lessons to be learnt from each country, in particular around how climate change priorities can be integrated into national planning and budgets, and what types of institutional mechanisms can be put in place to ensure coordination and policy coherence across relevant sectors.

The workshop discussions inform country case studies that seek to showcase different countries’ experiences of climate action. The first of these focuses on the experiences of Bhutan.

Supporting LDCs develop a vision for long-term strategies

To put the long-term goals of the Paris Agreement into practice, countries are invited to formulate and communicate by 2020 “long-term, low greenhouse gas emission development strategies” – visionary plans for achieving low-carbon, climate-resilient societies by 2050. We help LDCs think about how and why it’s to their benefit to develop these long-term strategies. 


What is effective climate adaptation? Case studies from the Least Developed Countries, Sejal Patel, Binyam Yakob Gebreyes (2020), Issue paper

From global ambition to country action: Bhutan steps towards low-carbon climate-resilient development, Thinley Namgyel, Binyam Yakob Gebreyes, Janna Tenzing (2018), Case study

From global ambition to country action: low-carbon climate-resilient development in Bhutan, Thinley Namgyel, Binyam Yakob Gebreyes, Janna Tenzing (2018), Case study (abridged)

Harnessing long-term strategies for low-carbon climate-resilient LDC development, Gabrielle Swaby, Gebru Jember Endalew, Achala Abeysinghe (2018) IIED Briefing

Additional resources

Developing Myanmar's national climate change policy, Achala Abeysinghe, Subhi Barakat, Janna Tenzing (2018), IIED Reflect and Act 

How parliamentarians can help ensure the success of the Paris Agreement, Sharaban Tahura Zaman, Subhi Barakat, Achala Abeysinghe, Janna Tenzing (2016), IIED Briefing | en français

Preparing parliament for the climate challenge in Ghana, Corinne Schoch, Barry Smith (2012), IIED Briefing

Climate change: an issue for parliamentarians in Southern Africa, Achala Abeysinghe, Simon Anderson, Corinne Schoch, Barry Smith (2011), IIED Briefing



UNDP/European Commission


Janathakshan (experience-sharing workshops)

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