Website terms and conditions


By using and/or accessing this website at, you agree to be legally bound by these Terms & Conditions (which include the Privacy Policy). These Terms & Conditions are governed by the laws of England and subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English Courts.

These Terms & Conditions may be updated without notice to you, so please check these regularly.

This website ( is provided as a public service. The general public may use this site to review and retrieve publicly available information and documents.

The content of this website, including its intellectual property, is owned by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), or the authors. All IIED website content, and that of IIED publications, may be shared and republished in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) unless specifically indicated otherwise.

We like to know where our work is being used so we can inform our authors and partners. Please email [email protected] with information about where you are referencing or republishing content from this website in accordance with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence. If you wish to use content from this website in a way that contradicts the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 licence, please contact us at [email protected] to request permission.  

If you believe we are infringing your intellectual property rights, please contact us. We will deal with your concern as quickly as possible.

Disclaimer of liability

Subject to the comments about user contributed content below, reasonable efforts have been made to offer the most current, correct and clearly expressed information possible, on this website. Nevertheless, inadvertent errors in information may occur.

IIED makes no warranties or representations whatsoever regarding the accuracy, quality, content, completeness or adequacy of information and data on the website. In any situation where IIED printed publications differ from the text contained on the website, the printed documents take precedence.

IIED also reserves the right to make changes to the website at any time without notice to you.

This website provides access to the World Wide Web, including links to other sites. Once you leave the IIED site (including via links from our website), IIED cannot control the information you access and IIED is not responsible for your use of other websites. You access other websites at your own risk.

If misleading, inaccurate or otherwise inappropriate information on this website is brought to our attention, a reasonable effort will be made to fix or remove it. Such concerns about the website should be addressed to [email protected].

Disclaimer of reliability

IIED makes no representations or warranties regarding the condition or functionality of this website, its suitability for use or that this web service will be uninterrupted or error-free.

We cannot ensure that the website is appropriate or available for use in every territory around the world. By using the website, you are responsible for compliance with all applicable laws in your territory. You must stop using it immediately if by using it you infringe any law or regulation in your jurisdiction.

Disclaimer of damages

By using this website or any part of it (including any interactive areas), you assume all risks associated with the use of this site, including any risk of relying on information or content found on this site; or risk to your computer, software or data being damaged.

IIED shall not be liable to you for any direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages, including (but not limited to) lost revenues or lost profits, resulting from the use or misuse of the IIED website and/or information contained on it.

However, if IIED is liable to you for any reason, its liability will be limited to £200 (except in the case of any liability IIED has for death or personal injury resulting from its negligence or fraudulent misrepresentation).

If your use of the website, including (but not limited to) posting/uploading of comments or other content, or breach of these Terms and Conditions creates any losses for IIED, you will compensate IIED for all its losses (including direct and indirect losses, all costs and all damages).

Disclaimer of endorsement

Reference in the website to any specific commercial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer or otherwise does not imply its endorsement, recommendation or favouring by IIED. The views and opinions of authors expressed on this website do not necessarily state or reflect those of IIED, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes.

For more information, please contact [email protected].

Your contributions to the website

If you submit or upload any content to the website, you agree to accept and comply with the following rules at all times. In these Terms & Conditions, "content" means any insight, comment or other user generated content.

We do not guarantee that we moderate any content posted to the website but we reserve the right to review/remove/edit any content at any time (including any insights or comments). We also reserve our right to terminate your access to the website or any part of it. If you wish to report any content contributed to the website, please email us via [email protected].

Any content contributed to the website by users contains the contributors' personal views and information and not those of IIED. We do not guarantee or endorse the accuracy or reliability of, and can accept no liability in respect of, any advice, opinion, statement or information contained in any user generated content.