Smallholder innovation for resilience (SIFOR)

August 2012 - November 2017

IIED worked with partners in China, India, Kenya and Peru to revitalise traditional knowledge-based – or 'biocultural' – innovation systems of smallholder farmers in order to strengthen food security in the face of climate change. Traditional farmers continually improve and adapt their crops and farming practices in response to new challenges, using local knowledge and biodiversity, generating new technologies and practices.

A herbalist shares information on medicinal and food plants growing in Kaya Kinondo Sacred Coastal Forest in Kenya (Photo: Doris Mutta)

Climate change has a significant impact on poor farmers and indigenous people in marginal areas, such as drylands, semi-arid areas and mountains. These people often sustain a rich diversity of crop varieties and resilient local landraces, which are key for adapting to climate change on both a local and global basis.

But much agricultural biodiversity has been lost – and remaining pockets are being eroded by the spread of monocultures and other pressures. Despite their critical importance for adaptation, very little has been invested to sustain these areas of diversity to enable them to continue to evolve and co-evolve for climate adaptation through selection and breeding by farmers.

What IIED did

IIED and partners addressed these challenges through a five-year participatory action-research project 'Smallholder innovation for resilience (SIFOR): strengthening innovation systems for food security in the face of climate change', which formed part of a wider programme on biocultural heritage.

We worked with 64 indigenous and traditional farming communities in areas vulnerable to climate change but rich in crop diversity. Through research facilitated by local partners, we helped to identify, conserve and spread resilient crop varieties and related biocultural innovations for adaptation, including: 

  • Maize and rice landraces in the karst mountains in southwest China
  • Rice and millets in the central and eastern Himalayas, India
  • Indigenous vegetables and cassava in the forests and drylands of coastal Kenya, and
  • Native potatoes in the Potato Park in Cusco, Peru.


The project aimed to strengthen biocultural heritage as the basis of local innovation systems, recognising the close inter-dependence between traditional knowledge, biodiversity, landscapes, customary laws and cultural and spiritual values. It:

  • Generated new evidence of the role of biocultural innovations – such as developing traditional crops and employing traditional knowledge-based adaptation – in resilience to climate change (for example, coping with increased drought and pests)
  • Developed practical tools and approaches to strengthen local innovation systems and rights, including community seed banks and registers, novel biocultural products, biocultural heritage territories, community protocols and participatory plant breeding, and
  • Promoted enabling policies at international, national and local levels that support biocultural innovation, such as 'biocultural heritage indications' to protect novel products, and policies that protect farmers' rights and seed systems.

The project conducted qualitative and quantitative baseline studies on trends in climate, food security and crop diversity and biocultural innovations and innovation conditions. It also supported the ANDES-led International Network of Mountain Indigenous Peoples.


Smallholder farmers have experienced significant adverse climatic changes in recent years, notably increased drought and erratic rainfall. Traditional knowledge and crops, and related innovations, have helped them to adapt, for example through the development of biopesticides and the revival of traditional soil and water conservation practices.

This project identified more than 500 traditional knowledge-based or ‘biocultural’ innovations that enhance food security, resilience, livelihoods and biodiversity – some very effectively. It also found that the genetic diversity preserved by indigenous knowledge and practices can provide a valuable resource for improving food security and adapting to climate change.

Evidence from the SIFOR project shows how these approaches can significantly enhance productivity, incomes and resilience in harsh environments. This can contribute to the targets set out in Sustainable Development Goal 2 – zero hunger – to double productivity and incomes and ensure sustainable and resilient production by 2030, and maintain genetic diversity by 2020.

However, community innovation is rarely supported, and the cultural values and biodiversity that sustain it are eroding. Greater support is needed for indigenous people’s innovations and practices to ensure that we do not lose the genetic diversity and knowledge they hold.

Strengthening community innovation systems requires investment in co-innovation processes such as participatory plant breeding and biocultural heritage territories. Priority should be given to conserving and improving resilient landraces in-situ, through community seed banks, community-managed landscapes, participatory plant breeding and market linkages for traditional products.

All publications from this project can be found on the Biocultural Heritage project website.

Research from this initiative fed into two other projects aiming to revitalise biocultural heritage for climate-resilient and sustainable food systems. These are:


Biocultural innovation: the key to global food security?, Krystyna Swiderska, Alejandro Argumedo, Yiching Song, Ajay Rastogi, Nawraj Gurung, Chemuku Wekesa (2018), IIED Briefing

SIFOR Mountain Agriculture Policy Dialogue in India, Prakriti Mukerjee, Nawraj Gurung, Ajay Rastogi, Krystyna Swiderska, Sudhakar Lama (2018),  IIED Report/paper

Smallholder farming systems in the Indian Himalayas: Key trends and innovations for resilience, Prakriti Mukerjee, Reetu Sogani, Nawraj Gurung, Ajay Rastogi, Krystyna Swiderska (2018), IIED Country report

International policies and biocultural innovation: SIFOR policy review, Lucia Polackova, Krystyna Swiderska (2018), Report/paper

Smallholder farming systems in coastal Kenya: key trends and innovations for resilience, Chemuku Wekesa, Paul Ongugo, Leila Ndalilo, Arafa Amur, Sylvia Mwalewa, Krystyna Swiderska (2017), Country report

What is biocultural heritage?, Krystyna Swiderska, Alejandro Argumedo (2017), IIED Report/paper | en español

SDG2: achieving food security, sustainability and resilience using genetic diversity and indigenous knowledge, Krystyna Swiderska, Alejandro Argumedo, Yiching Song, Ajay Rastogi, Nawraj Gurung, Chemuku Wekesa (2016), IIED Briefing Paper

Smallholder Innovation for Resilience (SIFOR): partners' workshop and policy dialogue, Chemuku Wekesa, Nereoh Leley, Leila Ndalilo, Arafa Amur, Sylvia Uchi, Krystyna Swiderska (2016), IIED Workshop Report

Smallholder farming systems in Southwest China: exploring key trends and innovations for resilience, Y Song, Y Zhang, X Song, K Swiderska (2016), IIED Country Report 

Ayni, Ayllu, Yanantin and Chanincha: the cultural values enabling adaptation to climate change in communities of the Potato Park, in the Peruvian Andes, Rory Walshe, Alejandro Argumedo (2016), Journal article

SIFOR survey questionnaires (community), IIED (2016), IIED Project material

SIFOR survey questionnaires (farmer household), IIED (2016), IIED Project material

Smallholder Innovation for Resilience (SIFOR) – qualitative baseline study, Central & Eastern Himalayas, India, Ajay Rastogi, Reetu Sogani, Nawraj Gurung (2014), Report

Smallholder Innovation for Resilience (SIFOR) – qualitative baseline study, Mijikenda Community, Kenyan Coast, Ongugo P, Wekesa C, Ongugo R, Abdallah A, Akinyi L, Pakia M (2014), Report 

Biocultural heritage territories, Alejandro Argumedo, Krystyna Swiderska (2014), Project flyer 

Biocultural innovations: a holistic approach, Krystyna Swiderska (2013), IIED Reflect & Act paper

Smallholder Innovation for Resilience (SIFOR): planning and methodology workshop report, Krystyna Swiderska (2013), IIED Event/workshop report

Report of SIFOR partners' workshop, Cusco Peru, 29 April - 4 May 2013, Krystyna Swiderska (2013), IIED Event/workshop report

Report of SIFOR workshop on biocultural heritage and traditional agriculture in the Central Himalayas: challenges and possibilities, Ajay Rastogi (2013), IIED Event/workshop report

Smallholder Innovation for Resilience (SIFOR) (2012), IIED Project Flyer 

Additional resources

Biocultural Heritage project website

Biocultural heritage for resilient mountain communities, Krystyna Swiderska, INMIP (2019), Event/workshop report

Resilient biocultural heritage landscapes for sustainable mountain development, Krystyna Swiderska/INMIP (2017), Event report

Potato Park Declaration, International Network of Mountain Indigenous Peoples (INMIP), (2017)

Resilient farming systems in times of uncertainty: biocultural innovations in the Potato Park, Peru, Asociación ANDES (2016), IIED Country Report

Biocultural adaptation in mountain communities: third INMIP International Learning Exchange, Stone Village, China, Jessica Reilly, Krystyna Swiderska (2016), IIED Workshop Report 

Stone Village Declaration, International Network of Mountain Indigenous Peoples (INMIP), (2016)

Climate change and biocultural adaptation in mountain communities: second international learning exchange of the International Network of Mountain Indigenous People, Krystyna Swiderska, Pernilla Malmer (2016), IIED Workshop Report 

Landscape approaches for mountain community sustainable development in a time of climate change: policy consultation and South-South exchange workshop, Krystyna Swiderska (2016), IIED Workshop Report

Designing an effective biocultural heritage indication labelling system, Graham Dutfield, Alejandro Argumedo, Krystyna Swiderska (2015), IIED Consultation document

Protecting and promoting traditional knowledge in India: what role for geographical indications?, Ruchi Pant (2015), IIED Working Paper 

Biocultural heritage innovations in the Potato Park – SIFOR Qualitative Baseline Study, Peru, Asociación ANDES (2015), Report 

The Tuggoz Declaration on Climate Change and Mountain Indigenous Peoples, International Network of Mountain Indigenous Peoples (INMIP), (2015)

Emerging biocultural innovations for climate resilience in Southwest China – SIFOR Qualitative Baseline Study, Yiching Song, Yanyan Zhang, Xin Song, Lila Buckley (2015), Report 

Mountain Communities Workshop on Climate Change and Biocultural Heritage, Krystyna Swiderska, Alejandro Argumedo (2014), Workshop Report 

The Bhutan Declaration on Climate Change and Mountain Indigenous Peoples, International Network of Mountain Indigenous Peoples (INMIP) (2014)


Department for International Development (DFID)

European Union's Agriculture Research for Development programme

The Christensen Fund

RSF Social Finance


Asociación ANDES

Centre for Chinese Agricultural Policy

Kenya Forestry Research Institute

Lok Chetna Manch

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