Supporting a nature positive, equitable global biodiversity framework

April 2020 - March 2022

IIED is keen to ensure that the final post-2020 global biodiversity framework that is negotiated by Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is not just good for nature, but good for people too.

Nature landscape of a spring with ducks, and mountains in the background

Natural springs in Madagascar (Photo: Rod Waddington via Flickr, CC BY-SA 2.0)

Throughout 2020 and 2021 discussions are ongoing as to the content of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework (GBF) that will be agreed at the 15th Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15).

The framework includes goals and targets that are intended to halt biodiversity loss and put nature on a road to recovery by 2030. Many of the targets being discussed recognise the contribution of nature to human wellbeing and to meeting the basic needs of some of the world’s poorest people. But others ring alarm bells.

For example, a target to protect 30% of the world’s land by 2030 which, unless implemented with the full consent, participation and leadership of the Indigenous Peoples and local communities (IPLCs) that own or manage most of the world’s biodiversity, could be disastrous.

This project aims to build awareness about the social implications of achieving 'nature positive' goals and to develop tools and resources to strengthen the emerging GBF so that it is equitable as well as effective.

What is IIED doing?

IIED is producing guides for Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) negotiators on key issues such as equity and development, so that provisions for these can be strengthened in the framework.

The first guide is intended to support Parties who wish to see strengthened equity provisions in the draft GBF. It helps negotiators develop national positions and covers the arguments for making equity provisions central to the GBF.

The second toolkit supports Parties who wish to see strengthened provisions for human development. It helps negotiators to develop arguments for enhancing the contributions of biodiversity to human development, and the final section offers ideas for the language that could be used to strengthen current provisions for human development.

In the run-up to COP15, the institute is also: 

  • Organising a 'Nature and Development Day' to raise the profile of these issues and to enable networking and co-learning
  • Looking at lessons from climate negotiations that could help inform the biodiversity negotiations
  • Exploring what it means to be 'Kunming-compliant' for different organisations
  • Organising a series of events and dialogues, in collaboration with other environment, development and rights-based organisations
  • Advocating for the recognition of IPLCs across targets, building on research on biocultural heritage, and
  • Collaborating with a range of environment, development and rights-based organisations to develop a common vision for a nature-positive, climate neutral and equitable world.


How good governance protects forests, Naira Dehmel, Phil Franks (2021), Backgrounder

Global Biodiversity Framework: equitable governance is key, Phil Franks (2021), IIED Briefing

Priorities for draft 1 of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, Dilys Roe, Phil Franks, Ebony Holland (2021), Report

Strengthening the foundational elements of the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, Johannah Bernstein, Valerie Heinz, Renske Schouwink, Marc Meunier, Ebony Holland, Dilys Roe (2021), Toolkit

Strengthening the development dimensions in the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, Johannah Bernstein, Valerie Heinz, Renske Schouwink, Marc Meunier, Ebony Holland, Dilys Roe (2021), Toolkit

Nature-based solutions or the ecosystem approach?, Dilys Roe (2021), Backgrounder

New biodiversity framework can learn from climate change experience, Ebony Holland, Paul Steele (2021), IIED Briefing

Strengthening equity in the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, Johannah Bernstein, Valerie Heinz, Renske Schouwink, Marc Meunier, Ebony Holland, Dilys Roe (2021), Toolkit

Additional resources

Blog: Learning from Paris: what would ‘Kunming-compliant’ look like for development cooperation agencies?, Dilys Roe (2021)

Blog: Why traditional knowledge and Indigenous Peoples’ rights must be integrated across the new global biodiversity targets, Krystyna Swiderska (2021)

Events: IIED and the 2021 ‘super year’

Podcast: Indigenous knowledge, people and nature – all crucial to Kunming: Make Change Happen podcast episode 11

Indigenous knowledge and values: key for nature conservation, Krystyna Swiderska, Alejandro Argumedo, Yiching Song, Ajay Rastogi, Nawraj Gurung, Chemuku Wekesa, Guanqi Li (2021), IIED Briefing

Q&A: Negotiating a new biodiversity deal that works for Indigenous Peoples

Biocultural heritage territories: key to halting biodiversity loss, Krystyna Swiderska, Alejandro Argumedo, Michel Pimbert (2020), IIED Briefing

Press release: Act on nature’, demand hundreds of organisations, in unprecedented call to world leaders (2020)

Project: Nature 4 Development: improving evidence and dialogue on biodiversity and development

Preparations for the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

Post-2020 partnership 'call to action' to the 2020 UN Biodiversity Summit (PDF)

Television programme: Post-2020 partnership global goals for Nature Climate and People

Project: Biocultural heritage and sustainable development

Biocultural heritage website


Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida)

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