Forest and Farm Facility Phase II

March 2019 - ongoing

The goal of Phase II of the Forest and Farm Facility (FFF) is to strengthen the organisations of forest and farm producers to deliver climate-resilient landscapes and improved livelihoods.

The Forest and Farm Facility is now working with Ecuador forest farm producers such as this bamboo production business

The Forest and Farm Facility is now working with Ecuador forest farm producers such as this bamboo production business (Photo: copyright Duncan Macqueen/IIED)

More than 1.5 billion smallholders around the world depend on forest landscapes for their food and livelihoods. Collectively the gross annual value of their smallholder production of food, fuel, timber and non-timber forest products is between US$0.8 and 1.5 trillion, making them the world’s largest private sector.

They have defining significance for the world’s poverty reduction, food security, forest management, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration and climate change adaptation. But enabling them to make a positive contribution requires investments in organisation and inclusive capacity development such that women and men, young and old can play their part.

The Forest and Farm Facility (FFF) is a partnership hosted by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) that strengthens forest and farm producer organisations (FFPOs) to secure their rights, organise their businesses, sustainably manage their forests, and provide social and cultural services to the poor and marginalised. 

FFF Phase I (2012-18) exceeded all expectations as FFPOs themselves leveraged more than $100 million in additional finance, pressed through 51 policy changes (including long-stalled handovers of forest land rights), and attracted 158 new financial investments in the 262 business which diversified or added value through FFF support.

Phase II (2018-23) will build on this success by scaling-up activities in nine core partner countries: Bolivia, Ecuador (Latin America), Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Zambia and Togo (Africa) and Nepal and Vietnam (Asia).

FFF's annual report from 2021 shows how the programme is continually improving, learning from its experiences, and adapting in the face of rapid change.

Additional network countries for which FFF is actively seeking funding include Guatemala and Nicaragua (Latin America), Gambia and Liberia (Africa) and Indonesia and Myanmar (Asia).

Co-managed by FAO (management and in-country operations), IUCN (regional and global work), IIED (knowledge generation, monitoring and learning), and Agricord (FFPO organisational support) and guided by a steering committee, FFF continues with its unique focus on FFPOs including women, youth and indigenous peoples as primary agents of change.

It seeks to position them as the main implementers of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Indeed, it will strengthen FFPO contributions to at least 11 of 17 SDGs by supporting them to pursue: 

  • Outcome 1: more enabling policy and legal frameworks for FFPOs (SDG16 and 17)
  • Outcome 2: increased entrepreneurship, access to markets and finance through gender equitable value chains and business incubation within FFPOs (SDG1, 5, 8 and 12)
  • Outcome 3: improved delivery of landscape scale mitigation, adaptation and climate resilience by FFPOs (SDG2, 13 and 15), and
  • Outcome 4: improved and equitable access to social and cultural services through FFPOs (SDG3 and 10).

What is IIED doing?

IIED will be supporting FFF Phase II through synthesis of monitoring and learning, and new demand-led knowledge generation surveys that will help us be more innovative in co-producing new knowledge in the service of real FFPO needs.

IIED has already begun to develop guidance in new areas such as women’s entrepreneurships, access to finance for FFPOs, managing food-forest trade-offs, and ensuring meaningful work for youth to address issues such as rural outmigration.


Shared labels: selling stories that conserve biocultural diversity and promote resilience, Emmanuelle Andaya, Crissy Guerrero, Kedar Koirala, Gustavo Mariaca, Emmanuel Mulenga, Femy Pinto, Amit Poudyal, Theophila Aris Praptami, Racchya Shah, Binh Tran Thi Thanh, Ho Thi Thoan, Tran Ngoc Truong, Yuri Amaya, Guandinango Vinueza, Vu Le Y Voan, Kata Wagner (eds) (2022), Research report

Forest and Farm Facility Annual Report 2021 (2022), Forest and Farm Facility annual report

Diversification for climate resilience. Thirty options for forest and farm producer organisations, Duncan J Macqueen (2021), Research report | en français | en español 

Local climate resilience finance: how can mirage become reality?, Duncan J Macqueen (2021), IIED Briefing

Strengthening capacity to diversify farmer business models for climate resilience, Ho Thi Thoan, Vu Le Y Voan, Pham Tai Thang, Pham Van Tien (2020), Case study

The diversified climate-resilient business model of the Tubeleke Club, Juliet Machona (2020), Case study

A climate-resilient cooperative business model for cassava processing, Toviho Gaglo (2020), Case study

Enhancing women’s diversification into tree growing for climate resilience, Kastory Timbula (2020), Case study

Essential oil production contributing to climate resilience in Nepal, Anu Adhikari, Racchya Shah, Amit Poudyal (2020), Case study

Gender-focused economic models of climate resilience in Madagascar, Ambinintsoa Noasilalaonomenjanahary, Voahangy Ramaromisa (2020), Case study

Building climate resilience through commercial agroforestry tree nurseries, Amos Wekesa (2020), Case study

Mobilising cooperative capabilities to cope with climate change, Julius Awaregya, Clifford Amoah (2020), Case study

Climate change resilience via production that preserves biocultural heritage, Carlos Poso (2020), Case study

Cocoa from peasant and Indigenous families – a way to fight climate change, Rogers Mendoza (2020), Case study

Places to prosper: engaging with youth migration in forest landscapes, Duncan Macqueen, James Mayers (2020), IIED Briefing

Women’s empowerment through collective action: How forest and farm producer organisations can make a difference, Anna Bolin (2020), Research report

Prosperity in place: meaningful work for mobile youth that enhances forest landscapes, Duncan Macqueen, Jeffrey Campbell (2020), Research report

Thriving in diversity: smallholders organising for climate resilience, Xiaoting Hou-​Jones, Duncan Macqueen (2019), IIED Briefing

Analyse widely, act deeply: forest and farm producer organisations and the goal of climate resilient landscapes, James Mayers (2019), Discussion paper

How forest and farm producer organisations deliver social and cultural services, Anna Bolin, Duncan Macqueen (2019), IIED Briefing

Forest business incubation: the heartbeat of healthy landscape livelihoods, Duncan Macqueen (2019), IIED Briefing

Access to finance for forest and farm producer organisations (FFPOs), Duncan Macqueen, Niclas Benni, Marco Boscolo, Jhony Zapata (2018), FAO and IIED Research report

Transforming gender relations: upscaling collective action in women’s entrepreneurship, Anna Bolin (2018), IIED Briefing

Additional resources

Project: Forest and Farm Facility Phase I

Video: From risk to resilience: incubating adaptive climate-proof businesses (day 5), series of training modules (January 2022)

Video: From risk to resilience: incubating adaptive climate-proof businesses (day 4), series of training modules (January 2022)

Video: From risk to resilience: incubating adaptive climate-proof businesses (day 3), series of training modules (January 2022)

Video: From risk to resilience: incubating adaptive climate-proof businesses (day 2), series of training modules (January 2022)

Video: From risk to resilience: incubating adaptive climate-proof businesses (day 1), series of training modules (January 2022)

Event recording: Stories from the frontline: nature-based solutions delivering for people, climate and nature, Resilience Hub, COP26 (December 2021)

Video presentation: Strengthening women’s voices in public and private governance (April 2021)

Forest and Farm Facility 2020 annual report (PDF)

Video: Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous, FTA Science Conference 2020

Forest Farm Facility – initiative for climate-resilient landscapes and improved livelihoods 2018-22, FAO (2018), Forest Farm Facility Phase II Brochure

News: Building stronger, climate-resilient farming and forest communities, July 2018

Forest business incubation: Towards sustainable forest and farm producer organisation (FFPO) businesses that ensure climate resilient landscapes, Duncan Macqueen, Anna Bolin (2018) Research report

Democratic forest business models: a harder but more rewarding path, Duncan Macqueen, Anna Bolin, Geraldine Warren (2015), IIED Briefing Paper

Stronger forest and farm producer groups can reduce poverty in the Gambia, Grazia Piras (2013), IIED Briefing Paper

Landscapes for public goods: multifunctional mosaics are fairer by far, Duncan Macqueen (2013), IIED Briefing Paper

Stronger forest and farm producers' groups can help deepen Myanmar democracy, Duncan Macqueen (2013), IIED Briefing Paper


Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida)

Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland

German Corporation for International Cooperation (GIZ)

Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality



UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature)


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