IIED has been working with local partners to seek out alternative routes to density, that don't force people to choose between being displaced to distant peripheries or being crowded into unhealthy "slums" or apartment blocks.
The IIED Human Settlements Group has been working with local partners, under the intellectual leadership of Arif Hasan, to identify plot-based planning processes that could help to give low-income residents better access to the benefits, and avoid the costs, of densification.
For Karachi, the ideas presented in the case study were later adapted to a new development available, and the recommendations were published.
Even if low-income households in rapidly urbanising countries can find a place in the city, they often get pushed away as the city develops, land values increase, and informal acceptance is replaced with formal rejection.
An inclusive city is one that not only helps to make land available to its growing population, but protects them from involuntary displacement as the city grows, and land values increase.
This means a planning process that facilitates the densification of low-income neighbourhoods, as long as the residents themselves are benefiting.
It also means giving these residents more collective capacity to improve their neighbourhoods, and more security from eviction when they do invest in improvements.
Video: Karachi rising
Video: Urban density in Bangkok
Planning for affordable housing during densification in Kathmandu: lessons from four settlements, Amit Bajracharya, Pragya Pradhan, Poonam Amatya, Bhagawat Bhakta Khokhali, Sabina Shrestha, Arif Hasan (2015), IIED Working paper
Housing density and housing preference in Bangkok's low-income settlements, Nattawut Usavagovitwong, Aim-on Pruksuriya, Wanida Supaporn, Chaiwat Rak-U, Diane Archer, Gordon McGranahan (2013), IIED Working paper
Planning for high density in low-income settlements: four case studies from Karachi, Arif Hasan, Asiya Sadiq and Suneela Ahmed (2010), Urbanization and Emerging Population Issues 3, IIED and UNFPA
Urbanisation and rural-urban linkages
Understanding urbanisation and the links between rural and urban areas