IIED is looking at how REDD+, a scheme which aims to compensate developing countries to reduce carbon emissions and conserve and sustainably manage their forests, can be designed to promote sustainable development and reduce poverty, as well as reduce deforestation and forest degradation.
We are investigating the practical economics behind different delivery mechanisms and the relative costs and benefits of different options for:
- the way REDD+ programmes can be designed, and
- international, national and sub-national level policies.
Currently, we are focusing on three countries in sub-Saharan Africa — Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda — where REDD+ is relatively new, together with Brazil and Vietnam, where there are already established programmes to provide incentives to reduce deforestation or increase forest cover.
Potential pro-poor impacts of different REDD+ models
Teams in each of the focus countries are analysing models — many based on existing agro-forestry and payment for eco-system services (PES) systems — which could be used for REDD+. These are all potentially pro-poor, as they involve smallholder farmers and forest-dependent communities.
The aim is to determine whether these pro-poor approaches can be cost-effective, taking into account opportunity costs as well as transaction costs, in particular, the costs of social safeguard measures, such as benefit distribution systems.
How do countries achieve ‘high-biodiversity REDD+’ in practice? This briefing presents a range of national and international policy options.
Policy choices at local, national or international levels in these countries are also being examined to see whether these support pro-poor REDD+ models, and how they affect the cost-effectiveness in terms of cost per unit of emission reduction.
Poverty reduction in existing pilot projects
In each of the five countries, IIED and partners are working with selected REDD+ pilot projects to track implementation and improve understanding of their impacts on poverty reduction. A key part of this work is a baseline survey of socioeconomic conditions of households, conducted in each pilot area prior to the initiation of REDD+ activities. Read a report with a synthesis of the five baseline surveys.
The costs involved are also being documented, in particular, the transaction costs for the set up and operation of these pilot projects.
Lastly, we are exploring the relative merits of different types of payment formats from the perspective of the communities involved through focus group discussions and choice experiments (surveys of their preferred choices).
REDD+ activities are being piloted in:
- Rio Negro Environmental Protected Area (APA) in Amazonas State, Brazil
- Aowin Suaman District, Western Region, Ghana
- Kilosa District, Morogoro Region, Tanzania
- Ongo Community Forest, Masindi District, Uganda
- Cat Tien and Bao Lam Districts, Bao Lam Province, Vietnam.
This project is funded by NORAD until December 2013.
Brazil: Fundação Amazonas Sustentável
Ghana: Hamilton Resources
Tanzania: Sokoine University
Uganda: Makerere University
Supporting locally-controlled forestry for improved livelihoods, justice and sustainability