Civilian Protection in Urban Sieges: Capacities and practices of first responders in Syria
Urban conflict in Syria has had devastating impacts on besieged civilians targeted by deliberate bombing and human rights abuses. Local actors, some with an overt humanitarian mandate, engage in first response activities, but often lack sufficient training, equipment and operationalisation. Our research from four besieged urban areas finds a range of capabilities, understandings and mandates within six different sets of organisations involved in first response. Our mixed-methods research methodology points to a strong evidence-base of the needs and strengths of organisations undertaking first response, and how external agencies can better support them.