A review of China’s rangeland management policies
In china three major rangeland management policies have caused large-scale changes for pastoral societies and rangeland ecosystems: the rangeland Household contract System (rHcS), ecological construction projects (ecps), and the Herder Settlement policy (HSp). this report reviews government and academic perspectives on the impacts of these policies on ecosystems, animal husbandry, livelihoods, and pastoral society, as well as on the causes of policy failures. the perspectives of two schools are diversified. Based on the findings, we argue that the negative outputs of these policies may ultimately stem from one significant root: the vague understanding of pastoralism among policy makers.