Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD): Country work

Article, 28 October 2014

Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD) is being piloted in countries in Africa and Asia. Each country adapts the framework to its own needs and contributes towards the further development of the framework.

In Kenya's Isiolo County, repeated droughts are forcing pastoralists out of herding and into farming. The county has used TAMD to assess climate risk management schemes (Photo: Martin Karimi/ECHO)

TAMD has been piloted in Kenya, Nepal, Pakistan and Mozambique since 2012. Work has started more recently in Cambodia, Ethiopia, Uganda and Tanzania. Each country case contributes to developing the TAMD framework as well as supporting effective adaptation planning in that context. The framework has been applied in different ways in different countries. It has been used to support local planning, to do a retrospective analysis and to support national indicators.

Watch this video on how TAMD could prove useful within Kenya, Pakistan and Cambodia.

Supporting local planning

Work in Kenya, Mozambique and Tanzania has focused on using TAMD to support effective local planning for climate change.

In Kenya, Isiolo County has used TAMD to identify county-level climate risk management (CRM) processes that will enable adaptation or development interventions at ward level. The County Adaptation Planning Committees and Ward Adaptation Planning Committees, supported by LTSA, developed a monitoring framework for Isiolo from  2013-14. It includes theories of change that will attribute adaptation benefits to CRM processes, indicators, assumptions and monitoring and evaluation plans. This framework will be used to assess adaptation benefits at the ward level and link these to national-level development indicators. In December, IIED published a research report on the results of the  TAMD feasibility testing phase in Kenya. The approach in Tanzania is similar to that taken in Kenya.

In Mozambique, the TAMD framework has been used to establish and examine plans for climate adaptation by a district council (Guijá District – Province of Gaza) and, as part of that district development plan (this was the first Local Adaptation Plan in place in the country), to identify how to assess the performance of the planned interventions.  In December 2014, IIED published a research report on the results of the TAMD feasibility testing phase in Mozambique.

Assessing effectiveness

In Pakistan, the TAMD framework has been used retrospectively as the basis for assessing the actual outcomes of two large-scale interventions – rainwater harvesting in earthquake affected Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkwa, and biogas generation across different parts of the country – from the perspectives of climate adaptation. You can read more about about this approach in our briefing paper Forwards and backwards evidence-based learning on climate adaptation.  IIED has also published a detailed research report on TAMD in Pakistan.

In Ethiopia, the Ministry of Agriculture, in partnership with IIED and Echnoserve, has been testing the TAMD approach in assessing and developing the country's climate risk management. The current project has two aims. One is to assess TAMD as a way of understanding  how a national climate adaptation programme – in this case the Sustainable Land Management Programme (SLMP-1) – is affecting local communities and how better evaluation can help the government improve the programme's ongoing implementation. The second is to look at how decision-makers manage climate risk at local, regional and national levels.

In December 2014, IIED published a research report on the testing of the TAMD framework in Ethiopia.

In Nepal, TAMD specifically aimed to understand how changes in community and household resilience might be measured and aggregated across different interventions. Nepal has many different climate change programmes and interventions, each with their own monitoring and evaluation frameworks. The TAMD research tested a method to help the government track progress and measure effectiveness as a whole, looking beyond individual projects. This was using a quasi-experimental approach to the TAMD framework.

National approaches

In Cambodia, the TAMD work has so far focused on institutional indicators at the national level. The team has developed a core set of five cross-cutting indicators that will assist in understanding the extent of institutional readiness and climate risk management at the national level. These indicators were developed in iterative stages and validated and refined at a national workshop in December 2013.

The indicators were finalised and tested through a participatory focus-group discussion with Ministry of Environment staff. These scorecards use an innovative 'readiness ladder' approach, which enables an understanding of where Cambodia is currently placed in an overall process of climate change policy and institutional development, and illustrates progress towards milestones. 

You can read more in our briefing paper Developing a national framework to track adaptation and measure development in Cambodia.

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