Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, IIED and partners have looked at some of the emerging impacts on the people and places where we work. How communities may be affected and how they have responded. We discuss the steps needed for an immediate reaction and then for the longer-term recovery by economies and societies – a recovery that benefits everyone and is sustainable, without having negative effects on the environment. We consider how the lessons learnt on the way will relate to tackling climate change, conserving natural resources, ensuring safe urban environments and building sustainable livelihoods.