The drylands are home to 2.3 billion people. IIED’s Drylands Programme started in 1987, when ruinous droughts in the African Sahel led people to write off drylands as overexploited wastelands. Through action research, targeted training and wide-ranging publications, IIED and its partners have gathered evidence and shaped policy. Concepts and tools from the programme have been widely adopted by national and regional institutions. This archive page links to past projects managed by IIED in the African drylands, or with pastoralists.