Principles for locally led adaptation

Eight principles for locally led adaptation have been developed to help ensure that local communities are empowered to lead sustainable and effective adaptation to climate change at the local level. IIED is among almost 70 governments, leading global institutions and local and international NGOs that have already endorsed these principles and are advocating their endorsement by others.

Two women harvest crops in a field

Two women harvest Chayote fruits and vines to make nutritious meals for their family. Local adaptation priorities, such as conserving and using crop biodiversity, can help manage climate change impacts (Photo: Qiubi, via Flickr, CC BY-NC 2.0)

Empowering local stakeholders to lead in adapting to climate change gives communities on the frontline of climate impacts a voice in decisions that directly affect their lives and livelihoods.

While not all adaptation needs to be locally owned or led, countries and local stakeholders are demanding greater efforts and commitment to putting more resources into local hands for local adaptation priorities.

As a consequence, and following an extensive consultation process, eight principles for locally led adaptation have been developed to respond to the asks of the 2050 Vision of the Least Developed Countries (LDC) Group for delivering a climate-resilient future that is guided by inclusion, participation, justice and equity, and includes a commitment for finance to be committed for local actors to invest in their adaptation priorities.

On 25 January 2021 it was announced at the Climate Adaptation Summit that 40 governments and leading institutions had committed to support locally led climate adaptation. The number continues to climb and all the endorsers are listed below.

In early May a communique issued by the G7 said it “welcomes the principles for locally led adaptation".

IIED was among those leading the way and director Andrew Norton said: “We see this as a critical initiative, one that will allow multiple organisations in all parts of the world to learn about the best ways to get money where it matters, but also to privilege the voices of the poorest and of those who are genuinely at the front lines of the climate crisis.

And at COP26 in November 2021 Danida, Sida, USAID and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs were among the latest donor agencies to endorse the principles.

Listen to a three-part podcast series on locally led adaptation – exploring what needs to be done to put the principles into practice and put local people in the driving seat of climate adaptation decision-making. 

“Doing this isn't easy. It's not just a question of saying ‘oh, we've got these principles, we've got it covered’… it’s really difficult to take this work forward in an effective way at the local level: you need to understand the power structures, the local context in which you're operating, and without doing that you're not going to be able to empower the people who need to be empowered in the process and hear the voices that we need to hear in setting the priorities for local adaptation action.

“So I'm delighted to emphasise IIED's deep commitment to this process, to learning what we learn from doing it, and to sharing that with others.”

IIED is calling on the global community of practice on adaptation to help move programmes, funding and practices towards adaptation that is increasingly owned by local stakeholders. When organisations or institutions endorse the principles, they are encouraged to outline what they intend to do differently or good practices that will be strengthened to better support or enable locally led adaptation action.

Endorse the principles: to raise global ambition and action on locally led adaptation, complete this commitment form (PDF) and email it to

As of 27 May 2022, the endorsers were: ACT Alliance; Act Church of Sweden; The Adaptation Fund; Africa Climate Action Initiative; BRAC International; CARE; Caribbean Natural Resources Institute; Catholic Relief Services; Centro para la Autonomía y Desarollo de los Pueblos Indígenas; Climate Action Network South Asia; Climate Change Africa Opportunities; Climate & Development Advice; Climate Investment Funds; Climate Justice Resilient Fund; DanChurchAid; Danish International Development Agency; Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs; E Co.; Fauna & Flora International; Friendship; Fundecooperación; Fundación Avina; Global Center on Adaptation; Global Environment Facility; Global Network of Civil Society Organizations for Disaster Reduction; Global Resilience Partnership; Green Africa Youth Organisation; Helvetas; Hivos; Huairou Commission; InterAction; International Centre for Climate Change and Development; International Federation of the Red Cross Red Crescent; International Fund for Agricultural Development; International Institute for Environment and Development; International Institute for Sustainable Development; International Research Institute for Climate and Society; Irish Aid; ISET International; Islamic Relief Worldwide; IUCN; London School of Economics and Political Science; Mahila Housing Sewa Trust; Media Awareness and Justice Initiative; Mennonite Central Committee US; Mercy Corps; Mutual Trust Bank of Bangladesh; Near East Foundation; Opportunity; Oxfam; Pan Africa Climate Justice Alliance; Participatory Research in Asia; PlanAdapt; Plan International; Power for All; Practical Action; Runa Ray; Save the Children; Slum Dwellers International; SMART Initiative; Start Network; Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency; Tebtebba; UK Foreign Cooperation and Development Office; UN Capital Development Fund; UN Development Programme; US Agency for International Development; Vita Impact; Wangki Tangni; Water Aid; Women's Climate Centers International; World Resources Institute; WWF International; Youth Climate Lab; Zurich Foundation; Zurich Insurance.

Putting locally led adaptation first

The principles were developed by a partnership of peers, formed under the Global Commission on Adaptation and including IIED and the World Resources Institute

A locally led adaptation track, guided by Dr Muhammad Musa, director of BRAC, and Sheela Patel, former board chair and founding member of Slum Dwellers International, was created, and with contributions from partners ranging from donors, funds, delivery partners, Southern governments, social movements and NGOs, the principles were developed to highlight what needs to happen to shift power into the hands of local stakeholders and what ‘business-unusual’ could look like.

The importance of locally led adaptation action was highlighted in the Global Commission on Adaptation's 2019 flagship report Adapt Now (PDF), which built on a decade of foundational work carried out by IIED with Slum Dwellers International, Huairou Commission, International Center for Climate Change and Development (ICCCAD) and others regarding financing that can tackle the triple crises of climate change, loss of nature and entrenched poverty. The principles highlight the need to empower local stakeholders  and move towards 'business-unusual' for adaptation.

Less than 10% of finance from global climate funds is dedicated to local action (although adaptation finance to the local level is higher) while less than 2.5% of humanitarian aid goes to local actors, and it is rarer still for local-level stakeholders to lead their own adaptation efforts.

However, locally led adaptation can be more effective than adaptation interventions run in a top-down manner because local actors are aware of the nuanced context in which they operate. Devolving power to local actors increases their awareness of and investment in adaptation, which can lead to longer-term and more effective adaptation outcomes. 

Additionally, given that households and communities are the biggest spenders on adaptation, local actors know how to address problems at lower costs and greater speeds.

The principles provide touchstones to a range of actors who can commit to changing their current practices towards those that that enable more sustainable and effective adaptation at the local level. They aim to give vulnerable and excluded communities greater agency over prioritising and designing adaptation solutions, shifting them from being beneficiaries to empowered agents of change.

The principles

The eight principles are: 

1 Devolving decision making to the lowest appropriate level 

Giving local institutions and communities more direct access to finance and decision-making power over how adaptation actions are defined, prioritised, designed and implemented; how progress is monitored; and how success is evaluated.

2 Addressing structural inequalities faced by women, youth, children, disabled and displaced people, Indigenous Peoples and marginalised ethnic groups

Integrating gender-based, economic and political inequalities that are root causes of vulnerability into the core of adaptation action and encouraging vulnerable and marginalised individuals to meaningfully participate in and lead adaptation decisions.

3 Providing patient and predictable funding that can be accessed more easily

Supporting long-term development of local governance processes, capacity, and institutions through simpler access modalities and longer term and more predictable funding horizons, to ensure that communities can effectively implement adaptation actions.

4 Investing in local capabilities to leave an institutional legacy

Improving the capabilities of local institutions to ensure they can understand climate risks and uncertainties, generate solutions and facilitate and manage adaptation initiatives over the long term without being dependent on project-based donor funding.

5 Building a robust understanding of climate risk and uncertainty

Informing adaptation decisions through a combination of local, Indigenous and scientific knowledge that can enable resilience under a range of future climate scenarios.

6 Flexible programming and learning

Enabling adaptive management to address the inherent uncertainty in adaptation, especially through robust monitoring and learning systems, flexible finance and flexible programming.

7 Ensuring transparency and accountability

Making processes of financing, designing and delivering programmes more transparent and accountable downward to local stakeholders.

8 Collaborative action and investment

Collaboration across sectors, initiatives and levels to ensure that different initiatives and different sources of funding (humanitarian assistance, development, disaster risk reduction, green recovery funds and so on) support one another, and their activities avoid duplication, to enhance efficiencies and good practice.

Sharing the principles

At the start of 2021, IIED and those committed to the principles embarked on a 10-year learning journey to promote locally led adaptation and will use three annual events – the Gobeshona conference, the community-based adaptation (CBA) conference and Development & Climate Days – to grow a community of practice that will demonstrate the role and value of locally led adaptation action.

Sonam P Wangdi, chair of the Least Developed Countries Group at the UNFCCC, also welcomed the principles in a recorded speech at the summit.

He said: "I am inspired by the locally led adaptation principles that are being put forward and by those organisations that have already endorsed them. These principles – including the focus on increasing resources to the local level, providing patient and predictable funding and investing in local capabilities – are a serious and meaningful response to the LDCs’ ask of the international community as outlined in our vision."

Watch a video recording of the entire session announcing the locally led adaptation principles at the Climate Adaptation Summit, while below is a video of the endorsers

Further resources


Clare Shakya (, director, IIED's Climate Change research group

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