Scaling up CLTS in Kenya: opportunities, challenges and lessons (PLA 61)

Journal (part) article
PDF (141.76 KB)
Published: November 2010
Participatory Learning and Action
Product code:G02806
Source publication:
Participatory Learning and Action 61 Tales of Shit: Community-Led Total Sanitation in Africa

Responding to the need for improved access to sanitation may seem extremely daunting in Kenya. For many years Plan Kenya, like many development agencies, constructed latrines. Yet this subsidy-led approach failed. So Plan Kenya changed tactics and now uses Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). CLTS seems key to transforming communities’ attitudes and behaviour towards good hygiene and sanitation. From one open defecation free (ODF) village in Kilifi District in November 2007 there are now over 200. As of May 2010, nearly 400 villages have been triggered across the country. The approach has gained recognition by the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation and others in the sanitation sector. There is increased demand from government, NGOs and UN agencies to scale up CLTS. This article shares insights for those thinking of introducing and/or scaling up CLTS. It first presents the Kenyan sanitation context and makes a case for CLTS, shares Plan Kenya’s CLTS journey and experiences and highlights opportunities, challenges and lessons that institutions and individual practitioners should consider when implementing CLTS.

Participatory Learning and Action (PLA, formerly PLA Notes) is the world's leading series on participatory learning and action approaches and methods. PLA publishes articles on participation aimed at practitioners, researchers, academics and activists. All articles are peer-reviewed by an international editorial board. See:

Article in: PLA 61. Guest-edited by: Petra Bongartz, Samuel Musembi Musyoki, Angela Milligan and Holly Ashley.

Keywords: CLTS, Community-Led Total Sanitation, water, hygiene, Kamal Kar, health, PRA, scaling up, policy, triggering, training, facilitation.

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Cite this publication

Musyoki, S. (2010). Scaling up CLTS in Kenya: opportunities, challenges and lessons (PLA 61). .
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