Annual Report 2014/15Shaping a fairer future

Shaping a fairer future

Annual report 2014/15

Our mission:

To build a fairer, more sustainable world using evidence, action and influence in partnership with others

Boats carry people Mali’s Cariere village to other villages on the dam lake such as Sogodogala for market day in Selingue town. The journey costs 750 CFA per person for a round trip (Photo: Mike Goldwater/GWI West Africa)

A new era for Sustainable Development

In 2015 world leaders stand poised to chart a new course for sustainable development. The Sustainable Development Goals they adopt, the climate change deal they strike, and the subsequent pacts that follow, will all serve to frame international development cooperation for the next 15 years.

If they are to end poverty, raze inequalities, and safeguard the world's ecological health, they must speak to the needs and priorities of the world's most vulnerable citizens and communities, and reflect the diversity of credible research, including that from the Least Developed Countries (LDCs).

IIED has long worked to amplify the voices of marginalised groups in decision making, and over the past 12 months we have focused much effort on the debate and diplomacy leading up to the year's landmark summits. From assessing the fairness of who pays for change, to supporting LDC negotiators, we have been doing what we do best: linking local priorities to global challenges.

This online annual report offers a snapshot of our work over the past year. Navigate to read stories about some of our programmes and projects, and learn how IIED is making a difference.

A Framework For A Fairer Future

A Framework For A Fairer Future

After three years of debate and negotiation, 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been developed to provide a blueprint for a fairer, greener world that balances the economic, social and environmental dimensions of prosperity and human well-being.

These were due to be adopted in September 2015 to drive the global development agenda until 2030. But can they really fulfil global ambitions to tackle poverty, reduce inequality, combat climate change and protect ecosystems?

This year, IIED commissioned an animation to capture the universal ambition set out in the SDGs by presenting the lives and hopes of five characters around the world. It calls on citizens everywhere to speak out and hold global leaders to account: to recognise our responsibilities and demand the future we want.

17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been developed to provide a blueprint for a fairer, greener world

Bringing the SDGs to life:
real change for real people

Watch the video 'Bringing the SDGs to life: real change for real people'

SDG animation gets international praise

Highlights from our work on individual goals


IIED has been helping to establish a global alliance of civil society organisations for clean energy access (ACCESS) to engage more strategically in policy debates and planning, and support an energy SDG that puts the wellbeing of the poorest first.

Read our energy blogs and briefings
Economic Growth | Resilient Infrastructure


We have highlighted the data needs underpinning Goal 11, addressing the challenge of making cities climate-resilient, supporting locally controlled funds and documenting how these can be used to improve local conditions in ways that make people less vulnerable to climate-related shocks and stresses.

Read our cities blogs and briefings
Education | Sustainable Consumption

Water and sanitation

Through initiatives such as Measure What Matters, we have helped highlight the risks of incoherent SDG indicators and demonstrated the state of indicator misalignment in water measurement.

Read our water and sanitation blogs and briefings

Climate change

Using evidence from the latest assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we have analysed the projected impacts of climate change on the LDCs' ability to achieve each SDG.

Read our climate change blogs and briefings
Poverty | Health


Working with the Independent Research Forum, IIED and partners have outlined a practical 'modular' approach to implementing the SDGs that cuts across goals and enables a more integrated approach to forests.

Read our ecosystems blogs and briefings
Inequality | Gender Equality


We hosted our second annual event on sustainable fisheries and, in particular, how to fund them. Fish Night 2 brought together academics, civil society, scientists and students to share the latest thinking on impact investments, government taxes and subsidies as potential financing mechanisms for sustainable fisheries.

Read our oceans blogs and briefings
Peace and Justice

Global partnership

At IIED, we focus on ensuring a global partnership is built with the perspectives and priorities of the world's most vulnerable centre stage. We work with the Least Developed Country (LDC) Independent Experts Group (IEG) to provide ideas that support fair and effective goals, and promote leadership from the LDCs at the UN level.

Read our global partnership blogs and briefings

Money Matters. How will the world pay for SDGs?

Setting the goals is one thing, paying for them another. But it is not just about where the money will come from; it is also about how it will be used, and whether it will support the world's poorest to shape their own futures.

IIED has drawn on work with partners in many low- and middle-income countries to explore the limitations of traditional top-down aid flows, and present an alternative 'decentralised' model in which finance is channelled directly to funds that poor communities can access and influence.

Money Matters. How will the world pay for SDGs?


What is a 'fairer future'?

Our partners across the globe have told us what one looks like to them...


Looking at the world from each other's point of view, using integrated multidisciplinary approaches to address some of the world's most pressing problems – poverty, disease, population growth, environmental degradation and climate change – will make it easier to shape a fairer future.
Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, founder and CEO, Conservation Through Public Health


If we are to achieve a fairer future we must 'power-up' smallholders to produce enough quality food for their families and communities. That means investments that promote sustainable agriculture, help farmers adapt to climate change, and, most importantly, keep the needs and priorities of smallholders central.
Chemuku Wekesa, research scientist, Kenya Forestry Research Institute
When it comes to development, everyone has a role to play, no matter how small. A society that promotes equal opportunity – especially through education for all regardless of gender, creed and race – is aiming for a fairer future.
Margaret Waithera Mwaura, student, University of Nairobi
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A fairer future would be the opportunity for all peoples to live in a healthy, risk-free and food-secure world, in which there is equity in access to nature's resources and quality social services.
Ibidun Adelekan, Urban ARK project


A fairer future means equity - with community enterprises supported in the economy, good governance with civil society having a real voice in national development – and justice, where Caribbean islands are supported to adapt to climate change impacts caused by others.
Nicole Leotaud, executive director, Caribbean Natural Resources Institute


A fairer future would be one in which our opportunities in life were not determined by the place and situation in which we were born and raised.
Dr Julio A Berdegué, RIMISP Centro Latinoamericano para el Desarrollo Rural


A fairer world is one where individuals and organisations act, not out of the fear of being accused, marginalised, penalised or raided, but out of the realisation that the future of all peoples, economies and ecosystems are fundamentally intertwined.
Lina Villa, executive director, Alliance for Responsible Mining


It is projected that, by 2020, 80 per cent of the Indonesian population will be in urban areas. However, the urban space is not designed to accommodate the poor and informal sectors of society. These people are often marginalised, harassed, and removed from the public areas. A fairer future would be one in which urban growth is more pro-poor and supportive of stronger rural-urban market links in the face of globalised markets - particularly in food systems.
Ronnie S Natawidjaja, director, Center for Agrifood Policy and Agribusiness Studies, Padjadjaran University


A fair future is possible if global leadership seriously commits to achieving climate justice that is gender sensitive and poor-centric. Global leadership must manifest their commitment to gender and climate justice that will transform the world moving it towards a new world.
Farah Kabir, country director, ActionAid; and member of the Least Developed Countries Independent Expert Group


A fair future would be one in which indigenous knowledge, resources and sustainable living traditions are given the most respect, and are not considered mere inputs to sectors such as agriculture, health or natural resource management systems.
Reetu Sogani, Lok Chetna Manch


In the post-2015 era we have a unique opportunity to integrate human development and environmental sustainability. In doing so, we must consider each country in the context of its national development objectives, addressing both short- and long-term imperatives.
Youba Sokona, special advisor on sustainable development, the South Centre; and member of the Least Developed Countries Independent Expert Group
Turning Tides: Making West Africa dams fairer for all

Turning Tides: Making West Africa dams fairer for all

In West Africa, governments often view large dams as a panacea for development. Dams offer the potential to generate power, irrigate crops and provide jobs and money - but for whom?

If dams are a cure-all, they must work not only at the national level, but also to serve the rural communities that live on the land earmarked for construction or flooding.

Through the Global Water Initiative in West Africa, IIED and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) are working to protect local rights and livelihoods. These photos, taken for GWI West Africa in villages around the Sélingué dam in Mali, show that when it comes to supporting local smallholder farmers, one size won’t fit all.


people will be displaced by the planned Fomi dam in Guinea


large-scale dams have already been built in West Africa; 90 of these support irrigation

If it weren't for the real involvement of GWI in this process, and consultation with the people through these [feasibility] studies, we could not do them. In fact, this is a first here in Guinea.
Dr Aboubacar Sidiki Condé, Director General for Fomi dam project, Guinea

Snapshots from our Natural Resources Group

Making the links: uncovering agricultural investment chains

A wave of large land deals is sweeping across Africa, Asia and Latin America. But the companies, relationships, processes and incentives involved - the 'investment chains' - remain frustratingly obscure. To raise awareness at grassroots level around the world, IIED produced an animation explaining investment chains and where they present opportunities for fairer outcomes.

It is estimated that two thirds of Indonesia's palm oil production is managed by multinational companies

Promoting fairer conservation

Among our work to promote fairness in conservation policy and practice, we developed and tested a participatory approach for assessing conservation impacts on local communities. Our research in Uganda shows that communities often start poaching because they think conservation practices are unjust. We are designing a framework for promoting fairness in protected areas management. We are also working with environmental lawyers Natural Justice on human rights in conservation.

Communities in Bwindi share conservation ideas

Once I went into the [protected] park and they arrested me and charged me. But if a gorilla or baboon comes onto my land and ruins my crops they don't charge the gorilla and compensate me.

Community leader at IIED's conservation workshop, Uganda, January 2015

A conservation and development duet

How can you convince the public of the importance of integrating conservation and development? The music video 'Imagine Bwindi' celebrates the beautiful and richly varied wildlife of Uganda's Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and raises awareness about the relationship between the Park and the surrounding Batwa communities.

Communities in Bwindi share conservation ideas

Imagine Bwindi if all resources were accurately shared... We are in this together, why not be partners

'Imagine Bwindi'

Democratising forests: now we're in business

Forests need good governance to balance conservation and exploitation. This year we worked with partners from 14 countries to develop 19 case studies of businesses that have successfully reconciled complex economic, social and environmental concerns. These case studies provide a detailed evidence-based resource for partners seeking to develop their own models of democratic forest governance.

Democratising forest business: a compendium of successful locally controlled forest business organisations

Sweden maintains 50% of its forest under local control (by cooperative businesses) and has among the highest forest cover in the world at 70% and the lowest social inequity as a result

Learning from indigenous experts

IIED supported the ability of indigenous peoples to deal with climate change by organising farmer-to-farmer exchanges, undertaking advocacy and developing tools to safeguard 'biocultural heritage' - the knowledge and biological resources of indigenous peoples. We produced a photofilm on Biocultural Heritage Territories, and in May our work helped to produce the Bhutan Declaration on Climate Change and Mountain Indigenous Peoples.

Watch a film Introducing Biocultural Heritage Territories

Read the Bhutan Declaration on Climate Change and Mountain Indigenous Peoples

China-Africa: an informal relationship

IIED and partners have been working in Africa's forests, mines, markets and rural communities to look at the socioeconmic and environmental impacts of informal markets, and the roles of local and Chinese participants. Our work has shown the need for targeted policy responses in both Africa and China that will strengthen resource governance in African countries and support more sustainable resource production in China.

More than 75% of Africa's timber exports go to China

The government could take away our land and trees at any moment, so we'd rather sell all the trees to the Chinese as soon as we can.

Villager, Cameroon

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Our land, our choice: the case for locally-led adaptation funds

Our land, our choice: the case for locally-led adaptation funds

An innovative pilot project in Kenya is putting local people in control when it comes to financing adaptation to climate change – and results have been impressive.

The project has set up 'County Adaptation Funds' in five Kenyan counties that are subject to severe drought. It puts money directly into the hands of pastoral and agro-pastoral communities, empowering them to draw on their knowledge of the land and climate to adapt to climate change.

IIED is a member of the Adaptation Consortium, which is piloting the project. This year the adaptation fund in Isiolo County completed its second round of investment, which included £500,000 from the UK government.

Working with traditional local institutions, or 'dedhas', Isiolo's county government, supported by the Adaptation Consortium, has evaluated the impact of the first round, and the findings showed some clear successes...

The five counties piloting the County Adaptation Fund cover 29% of Kenya's land area

Adaptation Consortium wins the 'Outstanding International Collaboration' category of the British Expertise International Awards

Read the full story

A woman uses livestock to fetch water in Sericho, Kenya
The assessment found that communities are better prepared for late or limited rains. This has been achieved through stronger local governance mechanisms that work to protect dry season grazing lands. The results are reduced livestock losses and maintained productivity.
A woman fetches water in Garba Tula, Kenya
The improved local governance and management mechanisms have helped communities conserve more water. They are building and repairing water infrastructure, such as pans, wells and boreholes, and the water is being kept clean and disease free. The result is that clean water is available for longer through the dry season than ever before.
A community meeting takes place in Kinna, Kenya
The Country Adaptation Funds are giving power to local people. In Isiolo, 70 per cent of funds must be invested in activities prioritised by local communities, through ward planning committees. These committees are responsible for hiring and managing all suppliers and service providers, and many of the wards in Isiolo are working on strengthening their governance mechanisms.

What's next?

Isiolo's approach is proving to be both tactical and sustainable – aiding best use of existing resources and building collective knowledge to face future extremes. The results are cause for confidence in what can be achieved with future investment.

In the next year the Isiolo County Adaptation Fund is likely to become a public fund. This means it will be able to draw on national and county budgets and be less reliant on foreign aid. Importantly, this will allow Kenya's National Drought Management Authority to access the UN’s Green Climate Fund for adaptation financing.

IIED is proud to be part of the consortium that has worked on this pioneering project. Its decentralised funding model reflects IIED's belief in self-determination: a fair share of climate funding, in local hands, can be a powerful model for poor communities around the world.

When you empower dedha you empower the whole community - you make them resilient against all shocks of drought, says Hussein Konsole
Dedha is a local institution that has been there [to] manage all water points and solve conflict. When you empower dedha you empower the whole community – you make them resilient against all shocks of drought.
Hussein Konsole, ward committee chairman and younger dedha member, Kenya

Snapshots from the Climate Change Group

A louder voice for Least Developed Countries

A fair climate change agreement must be influenced by those with most at stake: the people of the world's Least Developed Countries (LDCs). IIED is providing legal, strategic and technical support to the LDC Group at the 2015 UN climate talks. This work is reflected in the UN negotiating documents, in stronger alliances with other negotiating blocs and in growing media coverage. We continue to work closely with the LDC Group to prepare for the decisive UN climate conference in Paris in December 2015.

There are 48 countries in the Least Developed Countries Group

The pace of negotiations has accelerated and issues under discussion are only increasing in complexity, but the LDCs remain fully committed to a successful and ambitious outcome in Paris.

Giza Gaspar-Martins, chair of Least Developed Countries Group under the UNFCCC, Angola

Breaking new ground in climate diplomacy

Climate diplomat Pa Ousman Jarju undertook the first climate-focused mission representing the LDC Group to China in March 2015. There he met prominent and influential government climate representatives, policymakers and NGOs to explore how the LDCs and China can work together, now and post-2015. IIED supports the LDCs in forging these pioneering connections: we provide legal, technical and strategic support as they build important bridges on their route to an equitable and sustainable future.

LDC Group Chair Giza Gaspar Martins, left, and LDC Special Climate Envoy Pa Ousman Jarju in Bonn, 2015

While many only paid attention to the words of the powerful at the summit, I heard bold pledges from my own group of nations. The LDCs have set an inspiring example for others to follow.

LDC Special Climate Envoy Pa Ousman Jarju at the UN Climate Summit in September 2014

A new North-South partnership

In early 2015, IIED and the International Centre for Climate Change and Development (ICCCAD), based in Bangladesh, formalised their 'strategic partnership'. Over the past year, researchers from IIED and ICCCAD collaborated on themes including urban challenges, climate finance and governance. They will continue to work together to inform the world about climate change and development, and increase the capacity of those in the global South who are most affected by it.

ICCCAD director Saleemul Huq joins the People's Climate march in New York in September 2014

This partnership has allowed ICCCAD to develop its international work – in both undertaking research and South-South knowledge sharing – to support climate resilience action across the developing world.

Saleemul Huq, director of ICCCAD, Bangladesh

Getting political about climate finance

IIED is exploring the political economy behind climate resilient development: the key factors that influence the effectiveness of finance for climate change adaptation and mitigation. This year we supported two in-country learning hubs that brought together NGOs and government departments (from finance to forestry) to look at global and national climate finance. The hubs, organised with ICCCAD in Bangladesh and Echnoserve in Ethiopia, helped delegates gain a shared understanding of how policies work and consider strategies to ensure that investments protect the most vulnerable.

Experts at the IIED and ICCCAD-organised learning hub workshop in Bangladesh

Global climate finance is set to reach US$100 billion every year by 2020

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New prospects for informal gold miners

New prospects for informal gold miners

Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is characterised by informality, environmental risk, operational dangers and social and political marginalisation. Its sheer scale offers huge potential for social transformation: ASM forms the livelihood for an estimated 20-30 million people, including many of the world’s poorest citizens.

IIED has begun an ambitious programme of work designed to encourage a move to more responsible and inclusive mining. Working with partners, we are mapping the ‘ASM landscape’: the people involved and their relationships and realities. Our work is rooted in reality: we travelled to Tanzania's Geita gold mining district to discover the human stories of diggers, drivers, geologists, mining officers and village elders. Their images provide a constant reminder of their perspectives.

ASM has many stakeholders, including artisanal miners, small and large mining companies, governments, civil society and donors. Bringing these interest groups together is no easy task. In April, we organised an international meeting for more than 40 ASM stakeholders. By the end of this ‘visioning’ workshop, we had agreed that in a sector where most miners operate informally, developing and implementing good formalisation policies that enshrine land, mineral and human rights will be critical.

We are now planning a series of in-country dialogues on ASM, where local stakeholders can identify their own context-specific challenges and opportunities. The first event is scheduled for Ghana in November, 2015. We will work with a local partner to ensure the dialogue is grounded in the local context, with parity of voice across all stakeholders, including artisanal and small-scale miners.

We are also working with the Alliance for Responsible Mining and others to develop a common framework and toolkit for achieving a more inclusive and sustainable sector. 

Gold mining: the search for common ground

Watch the video 'Gold mining: the search for common ground'

With key stakeholders all in the same room for the first time, this was a great opportunity to focus on potential solutions to some of the issues… Providing a unique global forum, [ASM] stakeholders from across the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa and Asia were able to share their knowledge, experience and perspectives collectively for the first time.
James McQuilken, University of Surrey Business School, UK

Ghana's gold in numbers

0 million

ounces of Ghana's gold - 35.4% - was produced by formal small-scale mining in 2014

1 million

people are employed in Ghana's ASM sector, with several millions more involved in related industries


of artisanal and small-scale miners in Ghana are women


of artisanal and small-scale miners in Ghana operate without a legal licence

Snapshots from the Sustainable Markets Group

Keeping fisher communities afloat

The hilsa fish is central to the livelihoods of half a million people in Bangladesh. The government has introduced a seasonal fishing ban to conserve hilsa stocks. It compensates local fishermen for lost income. IIED and partners are working to ensure that the compensation scheme works. Our proposed 'Hilsa Conservation Trust Fund' offers crucial financial sustainability. Bangladesh's Prime Minister has approved the fund, and we are now seeking seed money.

Macher raja ilish fish

Macher raja ilish is a popular Bengali saying, meaning 'Hilsa is the king of fish'

I give you assurance that all possible measures will be taken by the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock for establishment of the Hilsa Conservation Trust Fund.

Mr Muhammed Sayedul Hoque, Honourable Minister of Fisheries and Livestock, Government of Bangladesh, speaking at the national meeting

Looking for the good in informal markets

The informal economy is big and growing. Its problems are well-known, but its resilient entrepreneurial energy is often overlooked. We worked with local partners to find and share innovative examples of market formalisation, for example dialogues to help relocate street-vendors to safer spaces, and projects supporting workers in e-waste. This work is building up to a showcase event in 2016 that aims to set a new policy agenda for genuinely inclusive sustainable development.

In East and Southern Africa, up to 95 per cent of food is sold in informal markets

Our partners this year included the Center for Agrifood Policy and Agribusiness Studies (Indonesia), the Alternate Forum for Research in Mindanao (Philippines), the International Livestock Research Institute (Kenya), and Toxics Link (India).

Compensating nature's protectors

Organisations working for sustainable resource management are increasingly looking to schemes offering payments for ecosystem services (PES), which work by paying landholders and communities to protect natural resources. This year IIED and Hivos collaborated with partners in Guatemala, Indonesia, Kenya, Nicaragua and Peru to explore how far PES, in the form of carbon offsets, can finance smallholder agriculture. We found they can work, but there are considerable challenges to be overcome.

View graph showing the Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and credibility along with the value chain

Click the image above to enlarge

Buyers' trust in existing systems and credibility along the value chain is key to accessing international streams of revenue. It comes from understanding product creation and delivery, and from clear project design and monitoring and evaluation (M&E).

Ina Porras, Smallholders and payments for ecosystem services

Powering low-income communities

To achieve the goal of universal energy access we need financing solutions that promote small-scale, decentralised energy provision. This year IIED hosted three international events to debate public and private finance for energy services. Together with partners, we set up the Alliance of Civil Society Organisations for Clean Energy Access (ACCESS) to advocate for people living in poverty to have access to reliable and affordable energy.

1.2 billion people

almost the population of India – don't have access to electricity

2.8 billion people

have to rely on wood or other biomass to cook and heat their homes

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Mapping the fresh challenges of urban food security

Mapping the fresh challenges of urban food security

The 2.5 billion increase in the global urban population predicted for 2050 raises pressing questions about food security. Most population growth is expected in low-income and informal settlements in Africa and Asia, and this is where we must look for answers.

A key problem with food security is not that there is not enough food to eat, but that many people do not have enough food to eat.

Many people in informal settlements manage an unreliable food supply by simply reducing the quality and quantity of their meals. This is a recipe for illness and inequality.

In this landscape, street vendors are becoming more central to the eating habits of low-income households. Street vendors are often seen by authorities as sources of unsafe food, polluters and obstacles to development. But the truth is that they support food security by selling affordable cooked foods and creating employment for many poor urban dwellers.

IIED and partners are working with Kenyan federation of slum dwellers Muungano wa Wanavijiji to reach out to street vendors and their customers, as well as people keeping livestock in Nairobi’s informal settlements.

A balloon mapping exercise, using aerial pictures taken about 100 metres above ground, gave residents accurate, up-to-date maps of their settlements. These maps are allowing Nairobi’s disenfranchised inhabitants to identify and implement solutions to the challenges prioritised by their communities, particularly in relation to food safety.

This work is also feeding into a wider, more accurate narrative on urban food security.

Watch the video 'Mapping the fresh challenges of urban food security'

Today, a third of Africa and Asia's total urban population live in low-income and informal settlements

By 2050, two thirds of the global population will live in urban areas. By far the largest growth will be seen in Africa and Asia

People living in informal settlements spend more on food than anything else; often more than half of all household expenditure

The way we eat in informal settlements has changed over time. We prefer ready-cooked food because we lack adequate cooking spaces in our shanties and more so we are prone to fire outbreaks.
Participant, IIED focus group discussion, Mathare, Nairobi, Kenya

Snapshots from our Human Settlements Group

Small towns make for big change

IIED's 'food transitions' initiative aims to challenge overly simplistic narratives on food systems. We want to design consumption policies that encourage sustainable systems and reflect complex rural-urban relationships. This year, we looked at small towns, and how they connect food producers to wider markets and provide non-farming jobs to land-poor groups. We found that these towns play an essential role as hubs, connecting urban and rural producers, markets and consumers.

Most of the world’s food is produced in rural areas, but eaten by urban residents

Within the evolving set of relations between urban markets and employment opportunities in rural areas, livelihoods have both improved and changed. They combine greater agricultural specialisation with more diversified non-agricultural engagements.

Effective responses to crises in urban areas

The world is urbanising, and cities are increasingly in the frontline of humanitarian emergencies. IIED is leading a three-year programme that aims to build an in-depth understanding of how humanitarian organisations can address crisis situations in urban contexts. The Urban Crises Learning Fund, initiated in 2014, will deliver research, documentation, tools and shared learning for urban stakeholders and humanitarian organisations.

The number of weather-related disasters has tripled in 30 years

51 million people

were forcibly displaced by conflict or disaster in 2013 – the highest number since the Second World War

Healthy places for healthy people: assessing risk for Africa's urban population

IIED is working with a range of partners on the Urban Ark programme, which aims to reduce disaster risk in urban sub-Saharan Africa. The three-year programme will research the risks facing the urban poor, including rapid population growth, poor housing and health and the impacts of climate change. The ESRC/DFID-funded programme aims to deliver improved data collection and analysis, capacity building and wide stakeholder participation.

2.4 billion

people cannot access a safe toilet

Children growing up in Africa's low income urban areas are often 20-30 times more likely to die than those in high-income areas or countries

Alternative thinking for safer sanitation

Less than half of sub-Saharan Africa's urban population can access 'improved' sanitation such as sewered systems. This figure hasn't changed in more than 20 years. The SHARE city-wide project helps communities and city authorities work on sanitation together. It is supported by IIED and Shack/Slum Dwellers International. This year it helped communities in Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe develop solutions. The project ends this year, but participants will continue scaling up local models.

Toilets in Malawi are constructed with support from the SHARE project


of Tanzania's urban population lacks 'improved' sanitation

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Inside IIED

Follow the links below to learn more about how IIED operates and its commitment to transparency.

We reduced our emissions by 2.5% over the year

We spent £18.1m in 2014-15

109 people; 32 different languages

770,341 of our research publications were downloaded

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36 pages detailing highlights of our work over the year

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