On the 25th February 2016, in London, IIED and partners~hosted a conference to help build a new policy agenda for~integrating the informal economy into inclusive green growth~and sustainable development. It was titled ‘The biggest ‘private sector’: what place for the informal economy in green and inclusive growth?’ and featured speakers from research, policy and practice, including from Brazil, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia and South Africa.~Together, participants demonstrated the variety and vigour~of informal economies around the world, shared lessons and~benefits, explored challenges for formalisation and highlighted~success stories.~This document captures some of the evidence and insights~presented at that event and summarises the key discussion~points made on the day. It is not intended as a comprehensive~general reader on informality and green growth.
What the UN terms “The New Urban Agenda” is being developed – with the intention of having it approved by national governments at Habitat III, the UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development in October 2016. But it does not need to develop a comprehensive list of goals and commitments because these are already in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement.~~So the New Urban Agenda can focus on who will address these goals in urban areas, how and with what support. But it needs to recognize how much the SDG and Paris Agreement commitments depend on urban governments and on low-income urban dwellers whose unmet needs the SDGs are meant to address.~~It is also necessary to acknowledge how important strong local democracies have been in successful cities, and how new urban agendas got buy-in from local governments in the past – for instance through participatory budgeting, Healthy Cities principles and the Making Cities Resilient campaign. So national governments need to agree on an urban agenda that urban governments and urban poor organizations buy into. This requires national governments to shift their attention from defining goals of good intention; early drafts of the New Urban Agenda have lots of “we commit…” and “we will…”). What is needed is to create or enhance the institutional and governance basis for achieving these goals in each urban centre – with no urban dweller left behind!
Humanitarian responses by local actors: Lessons learned from managing the transit of migrants and refugees through Croatia
The Croatian Government managed the transit of 650,000 migrants and refugees in late 2015 and early 2016 by coordinating the activities of an extensive number of international, national and local stakeholders to ensure quick and appropriate responses to these people’s needs.~~The levels to which small local governments and communities were affected by the crisis and able to respond effectively were influenced by several factors. These included the rapid mobility of people in need of humanitarian assistance, the competency of local organisations that responded and the central government’s decisions about how to coordinate assistance. The response relied on local resources and communities in a major way but it spared local governments from bearing significant direct costs.
Although conservation interventions aim to protect biological and cultural diversity, they can affect communities in a number of ways. The vast body of international law, norms and standards protecting human rights offers little rights-based, practical guidance for conservation initiatives. Focusing on indigenous peoples, this paper aims to provide a set of draft conservation standards that outline:~~• how indigenous peoples’ rights are enshrined in~international law~• how conservation interventions can infringe these rights~• the rights conservation actors need to be most aware of — and why — and~• conservation actors’ responsibilities in upholding these~rights.~~The aim of this paper is to encourage discussion and collect feedback. We look forward to continuing to develop these conservation standards.
Many national and international environmental agreements acknowledge that the impoverishment of ecosystems is limiting the world’s capacity to adapt to climate change and that ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) approaches should be harnessed as a priority. EbA has the potential to increase adaptive capacity and social and ecological resilience to climate change in both developed and developing countries. Whilst only 23 of the 189 countries that recently submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions to the United Nations refer explicitly to EbA, 109 indicate ecosystem-orientated visions for adaptation. These, however, rarely translate into robust targets or involve local communities. This briefing highlights actions that need to be taken to increase the uptake of EbA in national action plans and ensure its proper implementation.
This report constitutes one of four countrywide assessments produced under the International Institute for Environment and Development's (IIED) `Gender, land and accountability in the context of agricultural and other natural resource investments' initiative. The goal of the initiative is to strengthen rural women's livelihood opportunities by empowering them in relation to community land stewardship and increasing their ability to hold agricultural investors in East and West Africa to account.~~In order to deepen knowledge of the problems of gender-equitable land governance in Ghana, the Network for Women’s Rights in Ghana (NETRIGHT) has reviewed secondary literature and land titling data, analysed policies and legal instruments, and conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions in four regions – Central, Greater Accra, Northern and Ashanti. This has helped illustrate the extent of the diversity in land tenure practices at the local level and its implications for the way in which land stewardship and participation in governance issues are negotiated.
Despite progressive provisions on gender equality in Tanzania’s land laws, women have little representation in land allocation decisions, including meetings of village councils and village assemblies. Mainstreaming gender in local regulations can help to address this problem.~~The Tanzania Women Lawyers Association (TAWLA), in partnership with the World Resources Institute (WRI) and Lawyers’ Environmental Action Team (LEAT), developed model by-laws to improve women’s participation in local-level decision-making on village land management. This initiative took place in Kidugalo and Vilabwa, two villages in the Kisarawe district. The model by-laws were developed through a bottom-up, participatory process, and include explicit provisions to promote meaningful participation by women in village-level decision making.~~This report outlines the processes followed to develop the by-laws, the results so far, lessons learned and prospects for scaling up.
This report constitutes one of four countrywide assessments produced under the International Institute for Environment and Development’s (IIED) ‘Gender, land and accountability in the context of agricultural and other natural resource investments’ initiative. The goal of the initiative is to strengthen rural women’s livelihood opportunities by empowering them in relation to community land stewardship and increasing their ability to hold agricultural investors in East and West Africa to account.~ ~Drawing on a literature review conducted by the Tanzania Women Lawyers Association (TAWLA) and IIED, as well as on primary field research conducted by TAWLA in 2015, this report provides a backdrop of relevant policies and practice; a gender analysis of the policy framework governing land and investments; and recommendations on how to work towards land rights securing and better inclusion in land governance processes for women in Tanzania.
The trustees present their report and the audited consolidated accounts for the year ended 31 March 2016. This Report and the Accounts have been prepared in accordance with the Companies Act 2006, the company’s Artic1es of Association and the Statement of Recommended Practice: “Accounting and Reporting by Charities” (2005).
Commissioned through DFID’s Bangladesh learning hub grant and the Climate and Development Knowledge Network’s ‘Building readiness of the private sector in Bangladesh for GCF accreditation’ project, this toolkit provides basic facts about the GCF and information on how to access it, engage with it through the Private Sector Facility (PSF) and the readiness support available.~~It is designed for use by commercial banks, micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs), suppliers and manufactures or investors that want to channel and manage GCF funds towards climate-relevant projects and programmes, or develop and implement projects themselves.
Habitat III — the United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development — will take place in October in a new global context. Post-2015, international agreements and processes offer the opportunity for Habitat III to make more real transformative commitments in pursuit of a sustainable and just urban future than its predecessors. But if it is to do so,~flaws in the revised Zero Draft of the New Urban Agenda must be urgently addressed. While IIED, IDS and DPU collectively welcome the current transformative commitments, the revised Zero Draft lacks both an overarching vision that recognises the vital links between the three commitments and a consistent approach to implementation. The current contradictions threaten to make the commitments ineffective individual workstreams. To reach its transformative ambition, we argue that the final New Urban Agenda must make these connections, and suggest four specific ways in which it could achieve greater coherence and inclusivity.
In June 2016, the Least Developed Countries Independent Expert Group, IIED, and the ESRC's STEPS Centre hosted a dialogue for Least Developed Country (LDC) experts to discuss how the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) could help to define a new agenda for development. This paper provides a summary of the event and outlines four areas of action.
The escalating illegal wildlife trade (IWT) is one of the most high profile conservation challenges today. There is growing recognition among practitioners and policy makers of the need to engage rural communities that neighbour or live with wildlife as key partners in tackling IWT. However, a framework to guide such community engagement is lacking. Here, we present a Theory of Change (ToC) to guide policy-makers, donors, and practitioners in partnering with communities to combat IWT. Our ToC serves to guide actions to tackle IWT and to inform the evaluation of policies; and serves as a tool to foster dialogue among IWT stakeholders.
Landscape approaches for mountain community sustainable development in a time of climate change: Policy Consultation and South-South Exchange Workshop and INMIP Mountain Community Exchange Walking Workshop
Two events were held in Yunnan Province, China, between 19-23 May 2016, to explore landscape approaches for sustainable development of mountain communities. The first was a Policy Consultation and South-South Exchange Workshop in Lijiang, 19-20 May, to explore and promote community-led landscape approaches as critical tools for sustainable development, climate adaptation and poverty alleviation. The second was the INMIP (International Network of Mountain Indigenous Peoples) Mountain Community Exchange Walking Workshop in Stone Village, 19-23 May. ~~This report from the Farmers' Seed Network in China provides a summary of the discussions that took place across both events. ~~To find out more about our work on biocultural heritage, please follow the links below.
Counting critically: SDG ‘follow-up and review’ needs interlinked indicators, monitoring and evaluation
Global indicators are important for understanding progress towards each of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, they can mask sub-national and thematic variations. They cannot explain how or why change occurred or its significance to different stakeholders. Evaluation~helps to define and assess the worth, merit and significance of national policies in different contexts. This briefing introduces key considerations for the use of indicators, monitoring and evaluation of SDGs implementation,~review and follow-up at the national level. It promotes the importance of context-sensitivity, broad stakeholder involvement and adaptive management approaches in efforts to achieve development results. ~~It is the second in a series of briefings discussing the role of evaluation in achieving the SDGs.
‘As we embark on this great collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind.’ ~But what does this mean in practice?
As Indian cities grow, urban planners must ensure that basic infrastructure and public services are provided on a sustainable and equitable basis. Access to amenities such as water, electricity, food, drainage, sewerage systems, solid waste disposal, healthcare and transportation are key to the smooth functioning of urban areas.~~Indore, like several other rapidly growing cities in India, faces the problem of ever-changing land use, the emergence of high-rise buildings and walled townships, and growing informal settlements across the metropolitan area. These developments render the urban poor vulnerable to disease, accidents, loss of assets and daily livelihood struggles, as well as exposure to severe economic and non-economic losses as a result of severe weather events.~~This study estimates the economic losses suffered by the urban poor in terms of assets and productivity due to climate-induced waterlogging and floods. It examines how the vulnerability of slum dwellers living in informal settlements is exacerbated by a lack of supportive institutional mechanisms, the nature of non-inclusive economic growth, the social exclusion of urban landscapes and discriminative access to public services.
Indonesian cities are increasingly invested in efforts to build urban resilience, and finding means of resisting, absorbing and recovering from climate change hazards. Despite growing evidence that women, especially in underserved populations, suffer disproportionately from climate change hazards, there are inadequate data and methods for taking adequate account of women’s perspectives in city-level resiliency initiatives.~~The Indonesian civil society organisation Kota Kita conducted a study to examine its methodology for undertaking Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments (CCVAs). It focused on how its CCVA process could better assess women’s climate vulnerability for urban planning efforts, the importance of using a gender lens for resiliency planning, and observed several key gender-focused resiliency efforts in Indonesia.~~The study found that women’s perspectives were lacking in city-level resilience planning because few women participate in CCVAs. It also found that any data obtained had limitations in terms of its credibility, availability and accessibility, and that institutional capacity for using it was also limited. Finally, it found that gender and resilience development trends could actually reinforce gender discrimination rather than alleviate it.
Climate change has a huge impact on many aspects of Indonesia’s economy, society and environment. The Cirebon area in West Java province is particularly affected by sea level rise, coastal flooding and long-term drought, making its population vulnerable to climate change impacts. Vulnerability to climate change depends on an individual’s adaptive capacity – and gender inequality can affect this capacity.~~This briefing assesses the gender dimensions of climate change vulnerability in Cirebon coastal area and explores how gender sensitivity can be mainstreamed into local climate adaptation policies. Other factors which affect adaptive capacity, such as education, livelihoods, culture and the role of government, should also be taken into account when mainstreaming gender effectively into urban climate resilience plans and initiatives.
Climate change is not only affecting geophysical systems through events such as floods, droughts, and sea level rise, but also human systems, including livelihoods, health, economies, and cultures. In Indonesia, climate change greatly affects many aspects of the economy, society, and environment. Cirebon is a coastal area in West Java Province that is particularly vulnerable to sea level rise, coastal flooding and long-term drought.~~The vulnerability of individuals to climate change will differ depending on their adaptive capacity. In terms of gender, men and women have different needs and face different challenges in dealing with climate change impacts. Therefore, gender inequality is a critical issue with regard to climate change adaptation and it is not yet mainstreamed into local climate adaptation policy. This study seeks to analyse gender dimensions in the context of climate change vulnerability in the Cirebon coastal area and to mainstream gender sensitivity into local climate adaptation policy and strategy.~~It is generally acknowledged that women are more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change than men. Accordingly, a gender analysis in the context of climate change impact is required to describe the variations in gender conditions and socio-economic aspects by investigating women’s education and literacy, livelihoods, access to and control over resources, health, mobility, status in female-headed households, and their roles in decision making. In order to increase further understanding of this issue, gender mainstreaming in climate change adaptation policy and programme is therefore critical.