Climate Change

Transforming a ‘New Urban Agenda’ into a just urban agenda

Climate change group publications - 1 July 2016 - 12:00am
Habitat III — the United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development — will take place in October in a new global context. Post-2015, international agreements and processes offer the opportunity for Habitat III to make more real transformative commitments in pursuit of a sustainable and just urban future than its predecessors. But if it is to do so,~flaws in the revised Zero Draft of the New Urban Agenda must be urgently addressed. While IIED, IDS and DPU collectively welcome the current transformative commitments, the revised Zero Draft lacks both an overarching vision that recognises the vital links between the three commitments and a consistent approach to implementation. The current contradictions threaten to make the commitments ineffective individual workstreams. To reach its transformative ambition, we argue that the final New Urban Agenda must make these connections, and suggest four specific ways in which it could achieve greater coherence and inclusivity.
Categories: Climate Change

Making the SDGs a reality in LDCs: action for transformation

Climate change group publications - 1 July 2016 - 12:00am
In June 2016, the Least Developed Countries Independent Expert Group, IIED, and the ESRC's STEPS Centre hosted a dialogue for Least Developed Country (LDC) experts to discuss how the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) could help to define a new agenda for development. This paper provides a summary of the event and outlines four areas of action.
Categories: Climate Change

Developing a theory of change for a community-based response to illegal wildlife trade

Climate change group publications - 1 July 2016 - 12:00am
The escalating illegal wildlife trade (IWT) is one of the most high profile conservation challenges today. There is growing recognition among practitioners and policy makers of the need to engage rural communities that neighbour or live with wildlife as key partners in tackling IWT. However, a framework to guide such community engagement is lacking. Here, we present a Theory of Change (ToC) to guide policy-makers, donors, and practitioners in partnering with communities to combat IWT. Our ToC serves to guide actions to tackle IWT and to inform the evaluation of policies; and serves as a tool to foster dialogue among IWT stakeholders.
Categories: Climate Change

Landscape approaches for mountain community sustainable development in a time of climate change: Policy Consultation and South-South Exchange Workshop and INMIP Mountain Community Exchange Walking Workshop

Climate change group publications - 1 July 2016 - 12:00am
Two events were held in Yunnan Province, China, between 19-23 May 2016, to explore landscape approaches for sustainable development of mountain communities. The first was a Policy Consultation and South-South Exchange Workshop in Lijiang, 19-20 May, to explore and promote community-led landscape approaches as critical tools for sustainable development, climate adaptation and poverty alleviation. The second was the INMIP (International Network of Mountain Indigenous Peoples) Mountain Community Exchange Walking Workshop in Stone Village, 19-23 May. ~~This report from the Farmers' Seed Network in China provides a summary of the discussions that took place across both events. ~~To find out more about our work on biocultural heritage, please follow the links below.
Categories: Climate Change

Counting critically: SDG ‘follow-up and review’ needs interlinked indicators, monitoring and evaluation

Climate change group publications - 1 July 2016 - 12:00am
Global indicators are important for understanding progress towards each of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, they can mask sub-national and thematic variations. They cannot explain how or why change occurred or its significance to different stakeholders. Evaluation~helps to define and assess the worth, merit and significance of national policies in different contexts. This briefing introduces key considerations for the use of indicators, monitoring and evaluation of SDGs implementation,~review and follow-up at the national level. It promotes the importance of context-sensitivity, broad stakeholder involvement and adaptive management approaches in efforts to achieve development results. ~~It is the second in a series of briefings discussing the role of evaluation in achieving the SDGs.
Categories: Climate Change

Leaving no one behind by 2030

Climate change group publications - 1 July 2016 - 12:00am
‘As we embark on this great collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind.’ ~But what does this mean in practice?
Categories: Climate Change

The economic impact of floods and waterlogging on low-income households: lessons from Indore, India

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
As Indian cities grow, urban planners must ensure that basic infrastructure and public services are provided on a sustainable and equitable basis. Access to amenities such as water, electricity, food, drainage, sewerage systems, solid waste disposal, healthcare and transportation are key to the smooth functioning of urban areas.~~Indore, like several other rapidly growing cities in India, faces the problem of ever-changing land use, the emergence of high-rise buildings and walled townships, and growing informal settlements across the metropolitan area. These developments render the urban poor vulnerable to disease, accidents, loss of assets and daily livelihood struggles, as well as exposure to severe economic and non-economic losses as a result of severe weather events.~~This study estimates the economic losses suffered by the urban poor in terms of assets and productivity due to climate-induced waterlogging and floods. It examines how the vulnerability of slum dwellers living in informal settlements is exacerbated by a lack of supportive institutional mechanisms, the nature of non-inclusive economic growth, the social exclusion of urban landscapes and discriminative access to public services.
Categories: Climate Change

Lessons from Improving a Gender-based Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
Indonesian cities are increasingly invested in efforts to build urban resilience, and finding means of resisting, absorbing and recovering from climate change hazards. Despite growing evidence that women, especially in underserved populations, suffer disproportionately from climate change hazards, there are inadequate data and methods for taking adequate account of women’s perspectives in city-level resiliency initiatives.~~The Indonesian civil society organisation Kota Kita conducted a study to examine its methodology for undertaking Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments (CCVAs). It focused on how its CCVA process could better assess women’s climate vulnerability for urban planning efforts, the importance of using a gender lens for resiliency planning, and observed several key gender-focused resiliency efforts in Indonesia.~~The study found that women’s perspectives were lacking in city-level resilience planning because few women participate in CCVAs. It also found that any data obtained had limitations in terms of its credibility, availability and accessibility, and that institutional capacity for using it was also limited. Finally, it found that gender and resilience development trends could actually reinforce gender discrimination rather than alleviate it.
Categories: Climate Change

Mainstreaming gender in climate change adaptation in Cirebon, Indonesia

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
Climate change has a huge impact on many aspects of Indonesia’s economy, society and environment. The Cirebon area in West Java province is particularly affected by sea level rise, coastal flooding and long-term drought, making its population vulnerable to climate change impacts. Vulnerability to climate change depends on an individual’s adaptive capacity – and gender inequality can affect this capacity.~~This briefing assesses the gender dimensions of climate change vulnerability in Cirebon coastal area and explores how gender sensitivity can be mainstreamed into local climate adaptation policies. Other factors which affect adaptive capacity, such as education, livelihoods, culture and the role of government, should also be taken into account when mainstreaming gender effectively into urban climate resilience plans and initiatives.
Categories: Climate Change

Mainstreaming gender in climate change adaptation: a case study from Cirebon, Indonesia

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
Climate change is not only affecting geophysical systems through events such as floods, droughts, and sea level rise, but also human systems, including livelihoods, health, economies, and cultures. In Indonesia, climate change greatly affects many aspects of the economy, society, and environment. Cirebon is a coastal area in West Java Province that is particularly vulnerable to sea level rise, coastal flooding and long-term drought.~~The vulnerability of individuals to climate change will differ depending on their adaptive capacity. In terms of gender, men and women have different needs and face different challenges in dealing with climate change impacts. Therefore, gender inequality is a critical issue with regard to climate change adaptation and it is not yet mainstreamed into local climate adaptation policy. This study seeks to analyse gender dimensions in the context of climate change vulnerability in the Cirebon coastal area and to mainstream gender sensitivity into local climate adaptation policy and strategy.~~It is generally acknowledged that women are more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change than men. Accordingly, a gender analysis in the context of climate change impact is required to describe the variations in gender conditions and socio-economic aspects by investigating women’s education and literacy, livelihoods, access to and control over resources, health, mobility, status in female-headed households, and their roles in decision making. In order to increase further understanding of this issue, gender mainstreaming in climate change adaptation policy and programme is therefore critical.
Categories: Climate Change

A political economy of urbanisation and climate risk in Vietnam

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
This report uses a problem-driven political economy approach to analyse how the leadership of three mid-sized cities in Vietnam, Can Tho, Quy Nhon and Da Nang, are trying to pursue their urban growth ambitions under conditions of increasing awareness of climate change risks.~~For nearly two decades, urban growth has been both an indicator and target for social development and economic progress in Vietnam. Under the banner of modernisation and industrialisation, the Ministry of Construction created a fine-grained regulatory structure that uses the classification of urban areas to encourage spatially balanced growth. In recent years, however, those regulatory structures have been used by some provincial authorities not only as standards for urban classification, but also as means targeting urban growth. The realisation of these urban growth ambitions has been facilitated by a shifting political economy in which a liberalised urban development sector fuses with the institutions of socialist planning, aligned with the interest of political and business elites.~~However, this compromised urban growth machinery is increasingly meeting challenges with respect to social, economic and particularly environmental sustainability. Climate change-related risks serve as a magnifier for these challenges, especially in the realm of environmental hazards. Cities do not only grow into areas highly exposed to natural hazards such as floods or typhoons but also intensify the impacts of these very hazards, particularly flooding, due to their consumption of open space and encroachment into wetlands, floodplains and coastal areas.~~Despite the emerging acknowledgement of such risks, incentives within the political administrative system continue to pull decision makers along an urban growth pathway that is likely to increase the vulnerability of Vietnamese cities to climate change. Getting incentives, standards and procedures, and systems of accountability for urban development right, therefore, becomes the key to urban climate change resilience.
Categories: Climate Change

Gender analysis in building climate resilience in Da Nang, Vietnam: challenges and solutions

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
Climate resilience is more likely to be achieved when men and women fully participate in planning, decision making and implementation. This study looks at what roles men and women play in climate change planning and action, and to what extent women’s needs and capacity are fully taken into account. It focuses on Da Nang, Vietnam, a city extremely vulnerable to climate change.~~The three core components of urban climate resilience – systems, institutions and agents – which have been used by the Institute for Social and Environmental Transition (ISET) since 2012, were examined through the gender lens by conducting a series of stakeholder consultations and household interviews.~~The results indicate that (i) Da Nang has paid increasing attention to gender equality and the empowerment of women in general administration, policy making and implementation; (ii) social norms and gender biases still exist but they are not thought to be especially serious; (iii) both male and female groups are engaged in the process of planning and approving policies, plans and strategies on climate change; and (iv) gender relations have recently been given a positive signal in the form of support from a robust legal system and the formation of women’s associations within the municipal administrative system.
Categories: Climate Change

Climate change vulnerability assessments in Indonesia: where are the women’s perspectives?

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
Indonesian cities are increasingly invested in efforts to build urban resilience, and finding means of resisting, absorbing and recovering from climate change hazards. Despite growing evidence that women, especially in poorer populations, suffer disproportionately from climate change hazards, there are inadequate data and methods for prioritising women’s perspectives in city-level resiliency initiatives.~~The Indonesian NGO Kota Kita analysed its United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)-based methodology for climate change vulnerability assessments (CCVAs) by conducting research in three key areas: ~- How its CCVA process can better assess women’s climate vulnerability for urban planning efforts;~- The importance of using a gender lens for resiliency planning; and~- Making observations on several key gender-focused resiliency efforts in Indonesia.~~The study found that women’s perspectives were lacking in city-level resiliency planning due to low female participation in CCVAs and a lack of municipal gender-disaggregated data.
Categories: Climate Change

Gender analysis in building climate resilience in Da Nang: challenges and solutions

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
Although the legal framework for gender equality exists in Vietnam, gender mainstreaming in climate change planning and action have not yet been fully realised and addressed by local actors. In Da Nang, a gendered view to climate resilience building was also a new approach for the city and local authorities and vulnerable communities. This study examines the gender issue through the climate resilience lens within the context of Da Nang to see how gender and its link to climate change was locally perceived and at what level(s) gender equality and women’s role were appreciated and incorporated into climate change planning and action.~~The study applied the Resilience Framework provided by the Institute for Social and Environmental Transition (ISET) to examine the linkages of gender and climate change resilience building. Three key components of this Framework, Agent, Institution and System, were then used to analyse the data collected from the stakeholder consultations and field survey. The key research findings include (i) in Da Nang, gender relations have recently been given a positive signal; (ii) the lack of specific instructions on gendered relations is likely to cause local actors to underestimate the importance of gendered interventions in practice; and (iii) the greater vulnerability of women is not merely due to social or gender biases but also because of their own physical weaknesses.~~Three important policy implications generated from the study are (i) the necessity of improving women’s capacity to address their vulnerability; (ii) the necessity of having supportive mechanisms to enable full participation of women in planning and decision making; (iii) the necessity of integrating gender-sensitive indicators into plans and strategies to guide gendered interventions in practice.
Categories: Climate Change

African Urbanisation and Urbanism: Implications for risk accumulation and reduction

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
The purpose of this background paper is to describe recent trends in African urban centres, review potential future trajectories of these, and examine their possible implications for risk accumulation and risk reduction. This paper examines the multiple dimensions of the changing nature of urban centres in Africa, going beyond “urbanisation” to look at the broader dimensions of Africa’s “urban revolution” (Parnell and Pieterse 2014). It focuses primarily on sub-Saharan Africa, although many of the conclusions are relevant for the entire continent – and, indeed, for urban centres in low-income countries more generally.
Categories: Climate Change

CoNGOs: NGOs collaborating for equitable and sustainable community livelihoods in Congo Basin forests

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
NGOs collaborating for equitable and sustainable community livelihoods in Congo Basin forests (CoNGOs) is a project managed by an IIED led consortium which aims for improved governance and practice for equitable and sustainable community forestry livelihoods in the Congo Basin. The geographical focus of the initiative is Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), with some policy and legal reform engagement work in Gabon, and region-wide dialogue, learning and advocacy activities.
Categories: Climate Change

Stone Village Declaration (May 2016)

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
In May 2016, over 50 indigenous people and traditional farmers, representing 18 mountain communities in China, Nepal, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan and Peru, gathered in the Stone Village, Yunnan, China, to assess the effectiveness of biocultural heritage-based approaches for climate change adaptation and to share experiences and key methods and tools for adaptation. This Declaration outlines the key messages from that meeting and issues a call for action among governments, research organisations, civil society organisations and the international community.
Categories: Climate Change

Eight things to know about the Green Climate Fund

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
The aim of this document is to provide an overview of Green~Climate Fund (GCF) and its operational procedures. It outlines the roles and responsibilities of the national designated authority (NDA) and prospective national implementing entities in Tanzania to help them directly access the fund. It is an internal briefing document commissioned by PO-RALG to brief its staff on the GCF.
Categories: Climate Change

Unlocking climate finance for decentralised energy access

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
Achieving energy access for everyone requires more and better targeted investment, but what role does climate finance play in filling the funding gaps? This paper examines data on the major climate funds to assess what share of international public finance goes toward energy access and compares this to overall finance needs for the sector. It highlights the flow of climate finance to decentralised energy, which is a key priority for achieving universal access, and identifies key funding blockers. The experiences from Bangladesh and Nepal provide lessons on how climate funds and national policy could be reformed so that climate funding is better targeted at decentralised energy access in low-income countries.
Categories: Climate Change

Unlocking climate finance for decentralised energy access

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
Achieving energy access for everyone requires more and better targeted investment, but what role does climate finance play in filling the funding gaps? This paper examines data on the major climate funds to assess what share of international public finance goes toward energy access and compares this to overall finance needs for the sector. It highlights the flow of climate finance to decentralised energy, which is a key priority for achieving universal access, and identifies key funding blockers. The experiences from Bangladesh and Nepal provide lessons on how climate funds and national policy could be reformed so that climate funding is better targeted at decentralised energy access in low-income countries.
Categories: Climate Change

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