Fisheries play an important role in meeting global food demands. But coastal fisheries are in decline due to overfishing – and fisheries management in developing world countries is also complicated by significant poverty levels. In response, fisheries managers are increasingly using economic incentive-based approaches to reward beneficiaries – such as fishers – for complying with legislation aimed at sustainably managing the resource. ~~One of the rare examples of both mismanagement and restoration of fisheries using an economic-incentive mechanism is Bangladesh’s most important single-species fishery: hilsa. In 2004, a scheme was developed to support hilsa management in Bangladesh. But inadequacies were identified with the regulatory framework and the compensation scheme. This synthesis report is the outcome of a Darwin Initiative-funded project which has sought to improve the effectiveness of the incentive-based hilsa management scheme. It assesses the current ecological and socio-economic dynamics of hilsa fishery management in Bangladesh. The outcomes and recommendations should be of much use in hilsa fisheries management and improving the livelihoods of fishing communities.
Development actors facing pressure to provide more rigorous assessments of their impact on policy and practice need new methods to deliver them. There is now a broad consensus that the traditional counterfactual analysis leading to the assessment of the net effect of an intervention is incapable of capturing the complexity of factors at play in any particular policy change. We suggest that evaluations focus instead on establishing whether a clearly-defined process of change has taken place, and improve the validity and credibility of qualitative impact statements. IIED research in Uganda shows that the methods of process tracing and Bayesian updating facilitate a dialogue between theory and evidence that allows us to assess our degree of confidence in ‘contribution claims’ in a transparent and replicable way.
Energising local economies: experiences of solar start-ups in Kenya’s small-scale fishing and agriculture sectors
How are enterprises and NGOs in rural Kenya addressing poor people’s needs for energy that helps them earn a living? This paper looks at what new solar start-ups are doing to promote productive energy use in the fishing, agriculture and service sectors. It asks what specific productive energy needs the projects are targeting — such as cold storage for fish caught in Lake Victoria — and how they address the various barriers that prevent communities from fulfilling those needs. The six case studies include microgrids, irrigation pumps and multi-service energy hubs.
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development calls for follow-up and review processes that examine progress toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Such processes are needed at international and regional levels, but especially at the national level. To be maximally useful to policymakers and citizens, review processes must incorporate rigorous, country led evaluations that examine policy and programme implementation and effectiveness, and build well-reasoned and supported cases for claims of progress. At present, there is considerable focus on how to measure progress using indicators, but evaluation must go beyond measurement, to consider whether progress is equitable, relevant and sustainable. Such evidence will help demonstrate public sector accountability and accelerate change by focusing attention on enhancing learning and innovation.
In 2015, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals. And the UN Conference Habitat III to be held in October 2016 is meant to agree on “the new urban agenda” through which these goals are to be met. This issue of Environment and Urbanization looks critically at whether the much-needed changes in urban policy and practice will be achieved. It includes papers on: ~• what inclusive urbanization actually means (and whether governments will act on it)~• the rapidly expanding urban agenda but with diminishing expectations for Habitat III~• the return to large, heavily subsidized and inappropriate mass housing ~• the high rates of return that can come from good urban policy~• whether we need a new urban agenda for refugees/those displaced by conflict~• whether urban centres are taken seriously in the post-2015 Agenda~• indicators that allow cities to measure and monitor their SDG performance~• missing the MDG targets for water and sanitation in urban areas~• getting public and environmental health back into urban agendas~The papers on climate change in cities examine how vulnerability and adaptation are shaped by particular spatial contexts, community practices and political decisions in Dakar, Brazilian municipalities and Rio Branco.~Papers in Feedback describe the varied responses to inadequate services and infrastructure in urban areas, with a particular focus on informal settlements. These encompass young entrepreneurs providing critical sanitation services in Kisumu, urban poor federations building housing in Mumbai, and wetland communities adapting to flood risk in Kampala. Other papers examine the effectiveness of communal toilets in Kisumu, the decline of rental housing in Mumbai, and how the Ahmedabad government’s infrastructure projects not only displaced large numbers of low-income groups, but also passed on costs as well as maintenance and management responsibilities to those in the resettlement sites.
The Smallholder Innovation for Resilience (SIFOR) project aims to strengthen biocultural innovation for food security in the face of climate change in China, India, Kenya and Peru. This fi ve-year project initiated in 2012 supports innovation by small-scale farmers by supporting biocultural heritage (interlinked traditional knowledge, biodiversity, landscapes, cultural and spiritual values and customary laws) and by linking farmers with scientists and policymakers. Biocultural innovation arises from interaction between the components of biocultural heritage, or between traditional knowledge and science.~~This workshop brought together SIFOR research teams from the four countries, and government representatives, researchers and Mijikenda farmers from Kenya, to share the findings of a baseline study in the SIFOR communities, develop strategies to strengthen TK-based innovation, explore how policies affect TK-based innovation, provide a space for dialogue between farmers and policy makers in Kenya, and develop strategies for policy engagement.
Using economic instruments and harnessing market forces we are working to address threats faced by marine and coastal fisheries, and the people who depend on them, and to help shape policy options for realising the Sustainable Development Goals.
In sub-Saharan Africa, artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) employs tens of millions of people directly. Most of the region’s ASM activities are informal because registration is often costly and bureaucratic. The resulting illegality, along with the sector’s numerous social ills and environmental impacts, has overshadowed its importance, in particular how many subsistence farmers now rely on ASM for their disposable incomes. This paper explores the links and symbiosis between ASM and subsistence farming in the sub-Saharan Africa, and suggests ways in which to harness more effectively the former’s ‘livelihoods’ dimension in policy.
E-waste – electrical and electronic waste – is one of today’s fastest growing waste streams. By managing it well, we can recover valuable raw materials and reusable parts, with significant associated emissions savings. But much of its potential is lost when incorrectlly processed by informal and unregulated enterprises. This can damage both people’s health and the environment and intensify the vulnerability of workers. ~~Informal markets are where most of the world’s poor produce, consume and trade goods. Using case studies from China and India – both with huge informal e-waste sectors – this paper explores how to build inclusive, greener economies that retain the benefits of informal markets, while addressing how and why people are excluded from formal activities. Both countries are stepping up efforts to regulate but are failing to take into account the importance of engaging with the informal e-waste sector. How can drives to clean up harmful practices take their experience and expertise into account? And how can we develop effective policies to tackle pollution while supporting the health, livelihoods and economic activities of the poor and vulnerable?
Chinese businesses in Africa. Perspectives on corporate social responsibility and the role of Chinese government policies (Chinese language)
China’s business engagement in developing countries has grown rapidly in the past decade through direct investment, contract projects and trade. This discussion paper explores the role that Chinese policies and guidelines play in governing Chinese companies overseas, through the experiences and perceptions of representatives in those companies. We present the key findings of fieldwork in Mozambique, Kenya and Uganda during August–September 2015, including a survey and interviews with fifty-eight Chinese personnel working for Chinese companies in these locations. What emerges is a picture of a complex governance environment affecting the companies’ social and environmental behaviours — in which Chinese policies play only a small role.
IIED, Hivos and Twaweza hosted an interactive workshop on information channels and feedback mechanisms for electricity services in Tanzania. This workshop took place on 8th December 2015 in Dar Es Salaam, and was part of the Tanzanian Energy Change Lab initiative co-founded by IIED and Hivos.
This workshop was organised to provide a space for Rwanda based conservation and development organisations to share their experiences of linking conservation (and particularly great ape conservation) and poverty alleviation, reflecting on what has worked, what hasn’t and why; understand the framework for conservation and development policies in Rwanda; identify what changes are needed (from specific practices to national policies) in order to maximise conservation-poverty linkages; and develop practical proposals for how these changes might be brought about, and what role a group of conservation and development organisations in Rwanda could play (for example through information exchange, learning and joint action).~~This publication is an output of the Poverty and Conservation Learning Group (PCLG) - Event Report, 2016.
Small forest and farm producers manage a third of the world’s forests. Together, these smallholder families, indigenous people and local communities are the world’s largest investors in forests. They are key to sustainable forest and farm management and have a critical role to play in the success of global concerns such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+), climate change adaptation and green growth. Yet all too often their voices go unheard. ~~Through its support to national, regional and global forest and farm producer organizations, the Forest and Farm Facility (FFF) works to ensure the needs and concerns of small forest and farm producers are heard and recognized at global levels. In 2015, the FFF brought together representatives of forest and farm producer organizations from across the world to speak out at the largest forestry event of the decade, the XIV World~Forestry Congress in Durban, South Africa.
Getting organized puts smallholders in charge. Through farmers groups, cooperatives and networks, forest and farm producers can help each other not only through marketing advantages and access to finance, but also through the exchange of knowledge and experiences, increased bargaining power, and a stronger voice in national decision-making.~~The Forest and Farm Facility (FFF) works at national level to strengthen producer organizations for smallholders, women, communities and indigenous peoples in order to improve business, livelihoods and policy engagement. At regional and global level, the FFF works to help forest and farm producer organizations play a more strategic role by linking local voices and learning to global processes.
One of the greatest challenges for forest and farm producers is that they tend to be marginalized from markets and decision- making powers. They live in remote areas, are dispersed over larger areas, and often find it difficult to access markets and information. For these reasons they are often exploited by middlemen who capture the main share of benefits from natural resources and trade.~~Reducing poverty is a key focus of the Forest and Farm Facility (FFF), which is helping farmers to access information, analyse the market and develop business plans. Empowering forest and farm producers in this way is key to achieving many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
As a large proportion of the rural private sector, forest and farm producers are the primary actors in rural transformation and sustainable development. They possess knowledge and experience essential to shaping effective successful policies and actions.~~Through its support to local and national producer organizations, the Forest and Farm Facility (FFF) is working to ensure forest and farm producers are involved in national decision-making processes that impact their livelihoods and the sustainable management of forests, in turn helping to achieve many of the Sustainable Development Goals. In 2015 this support led to major changes in policy in Guatemala and the Gambia that will have a significant impact on the lives of many.
Climate mitigation programmes and finance mechanisms like Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) must engage millions of forest farmers if they are to halt deforestation and restore forest landscapes. Hundreds of millions of dollars have been committed to the design of REDD+ strategies, monitoring, reporting and verification systems. But there is still a huge gap in channelling funds to rural actors to lead the response to climate change – in part because nobody is supporting the organisations that have been set up by those actors to make such responses possible.~~The Forest and Farm Facility (FFF) is working to link forest and farm producer organizations with governments, REDD+ and other climate change programmes to make landscape restoration and an end to deforestation a reality.
State gold-buying programmes. Effective instruments to reform the artisanal and small-scale gold mining sector?
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining provides~a living to some 100 million people, offering huge~potential for rural development. Yet the sector~remains mostly informal and difficult to regulate~despite decades of efforts by governments~around the world to address this. Can state gold-buying~programmes (SGBPs) be an effective tool for~governments – to not only bolster state financial~reserves, but also to reform the sector, raising its~standards and improving its environmental and~social outcomes? And can these programmes~operate in countries that often lack institutional~capacity, infrastructure and stability? This paper~analyses case studies in five countries, drawing~out the challenges and potential factors for~success in developing an effective SGBP.