Green growth initiatives to date have often placed the economy and environment front and centre. However, for green growth to fulfil its promise, it needs to also focus on people and address systemic causes of poverty and social exclusion.~~ Green growth that does not deliver benefits to all stakeholders will not lead to the kind of transformative change envisioned by the global community and outlined in the Sustainable Development Goals.~~The ‘Pro poor, inclusive green growth’ report demonstrates how green growth can address some of the drivers of poverty and social exclusion. ~~Published by the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) in association with the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and the Green Economy Coalition (GEC), the report stresses that to be effective green growth strategies will need to strengthen institutional and governance structures and respond to people’s needs. ~~Drawing from a number of case studies the publication provides practical steps for policymakers, business and civil society to work together to deliver inclusive green growth. ~~Covering over 40 years of sustainable development, the report highlights progress that has been made toward greener and more inclusive growth, while drawing attention to scale limitations as a result of weak governance structures, policy incoherence and institutional silos. ~~The report documents how poor groups and small or informal businesses often lack the power, access or agency to shape policy or business outcomes.
The terms 'Climate-Smart Conservation' and 'Pro-Poor Conservation' are both established in the conservation lexicon. However, the combined term - Climate Smart, Pro-Poor Conservation (CSPPC) - is not. CSPPC is a new and innovative approach to conservation pioneered by WWF-UK and the WWF Programmes with whom it works. While there is no blueprint approach to CSPPC, a review of the literature highlights a number of key principles or characteristics. In this WWF-published briefing we present a framework to support conservation managers, project teams and other interested parties in exploring and understanding different programmes’ approaches to CSPPC.
~Construction of the Kandadji dam in Niger will involve, among other consequences, the appropriation of agricultural land owned by customary holders but also in many cases sub-holdings of other non-landowners.~~The government offered a long lease of 50 years for owners in compensation for their expropriated property rights. But how should the State compensate for the loss of the right of use by non-landowners working on expropriated land? This is the subject of this working paper.~~The study, conducted by a team consisting of a lawyer and a sociologist, used a participatory methodology where all stakeholders were involved. The consultants met with local actors in villages, especially those affected by the construction of the dam, to collect data and information on the basis of access and use of land in the area, and the expectations raised around access to lands managed by the Kandadji programme.~~The consultants also reviewed studies and recent work on the question of expropriation and compensation of land, and analysed the legal framework and public policies in place.~~A previous
Building a resilient city for whom? Exploring the gendered processes of adaptation to change: a case study of street vendors in Hanoi
Drawing upon examples of street vendors in Hanoi, this study explores gendered strategies to adapt to change and transform, and how street vendors’ responses, in turn, shape the current informal food systems in Hanoi. To do this, the study employs gender analysis drawn from critical social theory.~~The findings show that a vast majority of these street vendors are women, and for those women, informal food systems are operated based on social, rather than economic, mechanisms through which those women are able to sustain their livelihoods in the face of policy and/or economic changes.~~In contrast, male street vendors’ activities are closer to the formal market systems in the sense that their business is based on capital and economic interactions rather than social relations. Most of the female vendors also often allow their regular customers to buy their produce on credit or purchase low-value or leftover items at lower prices, facilitating poor people’s daily access to micro-nutrient-rich food meanwhile minimising food waste.~~In that context, and without a clear appreciation of these gendered adaptive strategies, policy which encourage the formalisation of food systems, run the risk to exclude or marginalize further urban and rural poor female smallholders and low-income consumers. The analysis also shows that some street vendors target not only urban poor but also rich and middle-class people by investing in livestock or fruits production to meet the increasing demand from middle-class for those products. Other vendors grow and sell local vegetables, remaining with limited provision for future change. The study concludes with a series of policy recommendations for building a climate resilient city for the poor.
Local economic development through ‘pro-poor’ gorilla tourism in Uganda (Apr 2016 to Mar 2019) is a 3-year project funded by the UK government's Darwin Initiative. Through it we will work with local people and established tour operators to develop and test new ‘pro-poor’ tourism products and services around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. The new initiatives — such as guided tours, food experiences, cultural performances and improved handicrafts — will aim to add value to the typical 2-night gorilla tracking package and increase local revenue from tourism, thereby contributing to poverty alleviation, improving local peoples’ attitudes to conservation and reducing threats to gorillas.
Ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation: strengthening the evidence and informing policy. Research overview and overarching questions
‘Ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation: strengthening the evidence and informing policy’ is a four-year project coordinated by IIED, IUCN and UNEP-WCMC as part of the International Climate Initiative (IKI). It aims to test the effectiveness of ecosystem-based approaches to adapting to climate change, determine the obstacles to their implementation, and influence policy. This background paper presents the overarching questions that the research component of the project is setting out to address.
This paper attempts to identify ways of making the town of Noapara, a coastal urban centre in the Jessore district in Bangladesh, resilient to the impacts of climate change, with specific focus on the water and sanitation sectors. Climatic events can trigger migration from hazard-prone areas to large cities. But if sufficient livelihood opportunities are available, improved resilience of towns or urban centres close to major cities may play a role in diverting migrants from the large cities. The situation in Naopara was investigated to see what investments would need to be made in the town to make it an attractive option for migrants. ~The findings indicate that Naopara lacks access to basic services such as safe water and sanitation, with only one per cent of households being covered by the municipal water supply. The rest are dependent on hand tube wells and other sources. In particular, poor communities lack access to safe water because they do not have their own land, or the economic capacity to afford a tube well. Additionally, the lack of proper drainage systems, adequate sanitation facilities and waste management facilities increases the vulnerability of those communities during hazards. Climate change-induced hazards such as intense rainfall, cyclones, flooding and salinity intrusion are expected to exacerbate this. In order to address these limitations, the appropriate institutional support from the government, and collaboration among stakeholders, including public-private partnerships and community-based organisations, can play a key role. The preparation and implementation of a city resilience plan could eventually attract displaced people to smaller towns such as Naopara.
Gender roles in building climate resilience are an emerging issue worldwide – so it is important to understand the drivers of gender-specific vulnerabilities, needs and capacities with respect to climate change. These include health and social, political and economic contexts, which, when combined with other social changes such as urbanisation, are likely to exacerbate climate change impacts.~~This working paper examines gender roles in building climate resilience in Hue City. We conducted participatory research in 12 wards using the City Resilience Framework (Arup, 2014) to engage with local authorities, people and city planners. Hue City has its own special identity that significantly influences its resilience to climate change: health and well-being have been improved by investment in healthcare. The society and economy of Hue is more stable than many other cities. The municipal government has taken some action to improve climate change resilience while the infrastructure and environment have been considerably upgraded, contributing to better resilience.~~In relation to gender roles, our study found that men and women at a grassroots level have different vulnerabilities and contribute differently to building climate resilience in Hue City. Women play key roles in sustaining and enhancing the health and well-being of people within their community, and accruing funds for households, communities and society. They also take part in organising mutual support for each other during times of disruption. By comparison, men are more engaged in activities relating to safety, security and other continuity plans within their communities. However, at the management level, we found that women hold only minor roles. There are therefore significant opportunities to challenge gender-based conceptions of capacity and responsibility, and to improve the gender sensitivity of decision-making processes and forums. This could significantly enhance the resilience of the people living in Hue City.
Gender inequalities hinder IIED in its mission to help build a fairer and more sustainable world. In 2014, building on earlier reflections about gender-related issues, IIED launched a gender review and audit to examine both organisational processes and research programmes through a gender lens. The process, which involved the participation of staff in all areas of the organisation, produced a Gender Manifesto, an action plan and the political will to move forward. In 2016, IIED leadership took steps to integrate the recommendations into business planning and budget operations.
The Paris Agreement adopted on 12 December 2015 is a starting point more than a finale. Much more work lies ahead, in negotiating the rules for implementing the Agreement, and in negotiating the perils of ratification. The time between now and 2020, when the Agreement will hopefully take effect, is crucial. ~~This Guide is meant as a companion for government and non-government participants in the negotiations under the Ad Hoc Group on the Paris Agreement (APA), and also for national-level stakeholders who wish to understand what the Paris Agreement means for national-level implementation.
Fisheries play an important role in meeting global food demands. But coastal fisheries are in decline due to overfishing – and fisheries management in developing world countries is also complicated by significant poverty levels. In response, fisheries managers are increasingly using economic incentive-based approaches to reward beneficiaries – such as fishers – for complying with legislation aimed at sustainably managing the resource. ~~One of the rare examples of both mismanagement and restoration of fisheries using an economic-incentive mechanism is Bangladesh’s most important single-species fishery: hilsa. In 2004, a scheme was developed to support hilsa management in Bangladesh. But inadequacies were identified with the regulatory framework and the compensation scheme. This synthesis report is the outcome of a Darwin Initiative-funded project which has sought to improve the effectiveness of the incentive-based hilsa management scheme. It assesses the current ecological and socio-economic dynamics of hilsa fishery management in Bangladesh. The outcomes and recommendations should be of much use in hilsa fisheries management and improving the livelihoods of fishing communities.
Development actors facing pressure to provide more rigorous assessments of their impact on policy and practice need new methods to deliver them. There is now a broad consensus that the traditional counterfactual analysis leading to the assessment of the net effect of an intervention is incapable of capturing the complexity of factors at play in any particular policy change. We suggest that evaluations focus instead on establishing whether a clearly-defined process of change has taken place, and improve the validity and credibility of qualitative impact statements. IIED research in Uganda shows that the methods of process tracing and Bayesian updating facilitate a dialogue between theory and evidence that allows us to assess our degree of confidence in ‘contribution claims’ in a transparent and replicable way.
Energising local economies: experiences of solar start-ups in Kenya’s small-scale fishing and agriculture sectors
How are enterprises and NGOs in rural Kenya addressing poor people’s needs for energy that helps them earn a living? This paper looks at what new solar start-ups are doing to promote productive energy use in the fishing, agriculture and service sectors. It asks what specific productive energy needs the projects are targeting — such as cold storage for fish caught in Lake Victoria — and how they address the various barriers that prevent communities from fulfilling those needs. The six case studies include microgrids, irrigation pumps and multi-service energy hubs.
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development calls for follow-up and review processes that examine progress toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Such processes are needed at international and regional levels, but especially at the national level. To be maximally useful to policymakers and citizens, review processes must incorporate rigorous, country led evaluations that examine policy and programme implementation and effectiveness, and build well-reasoned and supported cases for claims of progress. At present, there is considerable focus on how to measure progress using indicators, but evaluation must go beyond measurement, to consider whether progress is equitable, relevant and sustainable. Such evidence will help demonstrate public sector accountability and accelerate change by focusing attention on enhancing learning and innovation.
In 2015, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals. And the UN Conference Habitat III to be held in October 2016 is meant to agree on “the new urban agenda” through which these goals are to be met. This issue of Environment and Urbanization looks critically at whether the much-needed changes in urban policy and practice will be achieved. It includes papers on: ~• what inclusive urbanization actually means (and whether governments will act on it)~• the rapidly expanding urban agenda but with diminishing expectations for Habitat III~• the return to large, heavily subsidized and inappropriate mass housing ~• the high rates of return that can come from good urban policy~• whether we need a new urban agenda for refugees/those displaced by conflict~• whether urban centres are taken seriously in the post-2015 Agenda~• indicators that allow cities to measure and monitor their SDG performance~• missing the MDG targets for water and sanitation in urban areas~• getting public and environmental health back into urban agendas~The papers on climate change in cities examine how vulnerability and adaptation are shaped by particular spatial contexts, community practices and political decisions in Dakar, Brazilian municipalities and Rio Branco.~Papers in Feedback describe the varied responses to inadequate services and infrastructure in urban areas, with a particular focus on informal settlements. These encompass young entrepreneurs providing critical sanitation services in Kisumu, urban poor federations building housing in Mumbai, and wetland communities adapting to flood risk in Kampala. Other papers examine the effectiveness of communal toilets in Kisumu, the decline of rental housing in Mumbai, and how the Ahmedabad government’s infrastructure projects not only displaced large numbers of low-income groups, but also passed on costs as well as maintenance and management responsibilities to those in the resettlement sites.
The Smallholder Innovation for Resilience (SIFOR) project aims to strengthen biocultural innovation for food security in the face of climate change in China, India, Kenya and Peru. This fi ve-year project initiated in 2012 supports innovation by small-scale farmers by supporting biocultural heritage (interlinked traditional knowledge, biodiversity, landscapes, cultural and spiritual values and customary laws) and by linking farmers with scientists and policymakers. Biocultural innovation arises from interaction between the components of biocultural heritage, or between traditional knowledge and science.~~This workshop brought together SIFOR research teams from the four countries, and government representatives, researchers and Mijikenda farmers from Kenya, to share the findings of a baseline study in the SIFOR communities, develop strategies to strengthen TK-based innovation, explore how policies affect TK-based innovation, provide a space for dialogue between farmers and policy makers in Kenya, and develop strategies for policy engagement.
Using economic instruments and harnessing market forces we are working to address threats faced by marine and coastal fisheries, and the people who depend on them, and to help shape policy options for realising the Sustainable Development Goals.
Social protection and climate change programmes are two public policy responses that governments use to address the challenges of poverty, climate vulnerability and gender inequality. Social protection programmes provide a safety net for households by providing cash/asset transfers and labour market instruments to address the immediate and underlying socioeconomic risks facing the poor. Climate change programmes use a range of policy, financial, technological and capacity-strengthening measures to address climate change vulnerability. Despite the fact that most countries have comprehensive strategies for both social protection and climate change, there have been few attempts to align the two to develop more durable pathways out of poverty and climate vulnerability.~~This paper is the second of two case studies that examine how aligning social protection and climate change interventions could help households manage the risks they face, and set them on a path out of poverty and into climate-resilient livelihoods. It presents a case study of the Weather-Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) and the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) in India, based on fieldwork in the northwestern state of Rajasthan.