Climate Change

Climate change vulnerability assessments in Indonesia: where are the women’s perspectives?

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
Indonesian cities are increasingly invested in efforts to build urban resilience, and finding means of resisting, absorbing and recovering from climate change hazards. Despite growing evidence that women, especially in poorer populations, suffer disproportionately from climate change hazards, there are inadequate data and methods for prioritising women’s perspectives in city-level resiliency initiatives.~~The Indonesian NGO Kota Kita analysed its United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)-based methodology for climate change vulnerability assessments (CCVAs) by conducting research in three key areas: ~- How its CCVA process can better assess women’s climate vulnerability for urban planning efforts;~- The importance of using a gender lens for resiliency planning; and~- Making observations on several key gender-focused resiliency efforts in Indonesia.~~The study found that women’s perspectives were lacking in city-level resiliency planning due to low female participation in CCVAs and a lack of municipal gender-disaggregated data.
Categories: Climate Change

Gender analysis in building climate resilience in Da Nang: challenges and solutions

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
Although the legal framework for gender equality exists in Vietnam, gender mainstreaming in climate change planning and action have not yet been fully realised and addressed by local actors. In Da Nang, a gendered view to climate resilience building was also a new approach for the city and local authorities and vulnerable communities. This study examines the gender issue through the climate resilience lens within the context of Da Nang to see how gender and its link to climate change was locally perceived and at what level(s) gender equality and women’s role were appreciated and incorporated into climate change planning and action.~~The study applied the Resilience Framework provided by the Institute for Social and Environmental Transition (ISET) to examine the linkages of gender and climate change resilience building. Three key components of this Framework, Agent, Institution and System, were then used to analyse the data collected from the stakeholder consultations and field survey. The key research findings include (i) in Da Nang, gender relations have recently been given a positive signal; (ii) the lack of specific instructions on gendered relations is likely to cause local actors to underestimate the importance of gendered interventions in practice; and (iii) the greater vulnerability of women is not merely due to social or gender biases but also because of their own physical weaknesses.~~Three important policy implications generated from the study are (i) the necessity of improving women’s capacity to address their vulnerability; (ii) the necessity of having supportive mechanisms to enable full participation of women in planning and decision making; (iii) the necessity of integrating gender-sensitive indicators into plans and strategies to guide gendered interventions in practice.
Categories: Climate Change

African Urbanisation and Urbanism: Implications for risk accumulation and reduction

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
The purpose of this background paper is to describe recent trends in African urban centres, review potential future trajectories of these, and examine their possible implications for risk accumulation and risk reduction. This paper examines the multiple dimensions of the changing nature of urban centres in Africa, going beyond “urbanisation” to look at the broader dimensions of Africa’s “urban revolution” (Parnell and Pieterse 2014). It focuses primarily on sub-Saharan Africa, although many of the conclusions are relevant for the entire continent – and, indeed, for urban centres in low-income countries more generally.
Categories: Climate Change

CoNGOs: NGOs collaborating for equitable and sustainable community livelihoods in Congo Basin forests

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
NGOs collaborating for equitable and sustainable community livelihoods in Congo Basin forests (CoNGOs) is a project managed by an IIED led consortium which aims for improved governance and practice for equitable and sustainable community forestry livelihoods in the Congo Basin. The geographical focus of the initiative is Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), with some policy and legal reform engagement work in Gabon, and region-wide dialogue, learning and advocacy activities.
Categories: Climate Change

Stone Village Declaration (May 2016)

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
In May 2016, over 50 indigenous people and traditional farmers, representing 18 mountain communities in China, Nepal, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan and Peru, gathered in the Stone Village, Yunnan, China, to assess the effectiveness of biocultural heritage-based approaches for climate change adaptation and to share experiences and key methods and tools for adaptation. This Declaration outlines the key messages from that meeting and issues a call for action among governments, research organisations, civil society organisations and the international community.
Categories: Climate Change

Eight things to know about the Green Climate Fund

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
The aim of this document is to provide an overview of Green~Climate Fund (GCF) and its operational procedures. It outlines the roles and responsibilities of the national designated authority (NDA) and prospective national implementing entities in Tanzania to help them directly access the fund. It is an internal briefing document commissioned by PO-RALG to brief its staff on the GCF.
Categories: Climate Change

Unlocking climate finance for decentralised energy access

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
Achieving energy access for everyone requires more and better targeted investment, but what role does climate finance play in filling the funding gaps? This paper examines data on the major climate funds to assess what share of international public finance goes toward energy access and compares this to overall finance needs for the sector. It highlights the flow of climate finance to decentralised energy, which is a key priority for achieving universal access, and identifies key funding blockers. The experiences from Bangladesh and Nepal provide lessons on how climate funds and national policy could be reformed so that climate funding is better targeted at decentralised energy access in low-income countries.
Categories: Climate Change

Unlocking climate finance for decentralised energy access

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
Achieving energy access for everyone requires more and better targeted investment, but what role does climate finance play in filling the funding gaps? This paper examines data on the major climate funds to assess what share of international public finance goes toward energy access and compares this to overall finance needs for the sector. It highlights the flow of climate finance to decentralised energy, which is a key priority for achieving universal access, and identifies key funding blockers. The experiences from Bangladesh and Nepal provide lessons on how climate funds and national policy could be reformed so that climate funding is better targeted at decentralised energy access in low-income countries.
Categories: Climate Change

When investors come knocking: ensuring African women have a say

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
In much of sub-Saharan Africa, women have little say in decisions over land. Unless proactive steps are taken to enable women to have a stronger voice, large-scale agribusiness projects will leave them even more marginalised. Though there has been little research in this area, an emerging body of thinking and practice provides clear pointers as to how governments, NGOs and investors might mitigate such risks in future, particularly by explicitly addressing gender issues head-on from the very outset.
Categories: Climate Change

When investors come knocking: ensuring African women have a say

Climate change group publications - 1 June 2016 - 12:00am
In much of sub-Saharan Africa, women have little say in decisions over land. Unless proactive steps are taken to enable women to have a stronger voice, large-scale agribusiness projects will leave them even more marginalised. Though there has been little research in this area, an emerging body of thinking and practice provides clear pointers as to how governments, NGOs and investors might mitigate such risks in future, particularly by explicitly addressing gender issues head-on from the very outset.
Categories: Climate Change

Food consumption, urbanisation and rural transformation: the trade dimensions

Climate change group publications - 1 May 2016 - 12:00am
Growing urban demand for food – which now constitutes about 60–70 per cent of food consumption in Asia and more than half in Africa – is met largely by trade. This paper reviews evidence for what this trade means for rural areas, and for successful rural economic transformation. It also reviews trade and other policy options for generating a stronger ‘win’ between urban consumption and rural transformation.
Categories: Climate Change

Trade winds: is free trade in food bad news for rural areas during rapid urbanisation?

Climate change group publications - 1 May 2016 - 12:00am
City dwellers are driving more than half of the demand for food in Africa and 60–70 per cent in Asia. Trade meets that demand — urban consumers are linked to farmers and processors by supply networks that can span great distances. Whether rural areas are winning or losing from increased trade, however, remains uncertain. Urban areas can draw in imports rather than domestic suppliers because of proximity to ports, shifts in consumption, poor competitiveness or poor infrastructure. A working paper explores how urbanisation is transforming trade between rural and urban areas. It looks at the relative merits of trade and agriculture policy instruments, and unpacks some of the implications for policymakers.
Categories: Climate Change

Trade winds: is free trade in food bad news for rural areas during rapid urbanisation?

Climate change group publications - 1 May 2016 - 12:00am
City dwellers are driving more than half of the demand for food in Africa and 60–70 per cent in Asia. Trade meets that demand — urban consumers are linked to farmers and processors by supply networks that can span great distances. Whether rural areas are winning or losing from increased trade, however, remains uncertain. Urban areas can draw in imports rather than domestic suppliers because of proximity to ports, shifts in consumption, poor competitiveness or poor infrastructure. A working paper explores how urbanisation is transforming trade between rural and urban areas. It looks at the relative merits of trade and agriculture policy instruments, and unpacks some of the implications for policymakers.
Categories: Climate Change

Building a resilient city for whom? Exploring the gendered processes of adaptation to change: a case study of street vendors in Hanoi

Climate change group publications - 1 May 2016 - 12:00am
Drawing upon examples of street vendors in Hanoi, this study explores gendered strategies to adapt to change and transform, and how street vendors’ responses, in turn, shape the current informal food systems in Hanoi. To do this, the study employs gender analysis drawn from critical social theory.~~The findings show that a vast majority of these street vendors are women, and for those women, informal food systems are operated based on social, rather than economic, mechanisms through which those women are able to sustain their livelihoods in the face of policy and/or economic changes.~~In contrast, male street vendors’ activities are closer to the formal market systems in the sense that their business is based on capital and economic interactions rather than social relations. Most of the female vendors also often allow their regular customers to buy their produce on credit or purchase low-value or leftover items at lower prices, facilitating poor people’s daily access to micro-nutrient-rich food meanwhile minimising food waste.~~In that context, and without a clear appreciation of these gendered adaptive strategies, policy which encourage the formalisation of food systems, run the risk to exclude or marginalize further urban and rural poor female smallholders and low-income consumers. The analysis also shows that some street vendors target not only urban poor but also rich and middle-class people by investing in livestock or fruits production to meet the increasing demand from middle-class for those products. Other vendors grow and sell local vegetables, remaining with limited provision for future change. The study concludes with a series of policy recommendations for building a climate resilient city for the poor.
Categories: Climate Change

Building a resilient city for whom? Learning from street vendors’ gendered responses to urbanisation in Hanoi

Climate change group publications - 1 May 2016 - 12:00am
In Hanoi, agricultural production and trading systems have changed since the macro-economic reform in the late 1980s, and the subsequent urbanisation of the city affected livelihoods of smallholders from both peri-urban and rural areas. However, the impacts of change are unevenly distributed among urban populations. Some smallholders took advantage of the socio-economic changes as great economic opportunity, while others had few options in their adaptation strategies. People’s different responses to change then influence the city’s social structures through processes such as urban-rural migration and the marginalisation of the poor in informal food systems. Drawing upon examples of street vendors in Hanoi, this study explores the different ways in which male and female street vendors respond to change and how their responses shape current informal food systems in Hanoi. ~~To explore this question we conducted in-depth-interviews with 50 street vendors (28 females, 13 males and nine couples) from eight different sites in four districts. Questions were structured by the theoretical frameworks drawn from critical social theory (Connell, 2009). Gender analysis, grounded in critical social theory, can explore the roles of gendered agency and gendered relationships in the processes of adaptation. While issues of access are often considered in relation to economic resources, gender analysis supports the concept of access that moves beyond economic notions to describe social relationships as a resource (Ribot and Peluso, 2003). Social relations are highly gendered and negotiated through gendered agency, through which women negotiate with those who have greater access to resources and/or build mutual support relations with their family, co-villagers and friends. The present approach facilitates an exploration of individual adaptability built upon the institutions of family and village through gendered interdependent relationships.
Categories: Climate Change

Building Climate Resilience to Noapara Town: A Coastal Urban Centre of Bangladesh

Climate change group publications - 1 May 2016 - 12:00am
This paper attempts to identify ways of making the town of Noapara, a coastal urban centre in the Jessore district in Bangladesh, resilient to the impacts of climate change, with specific focus on the water and sanitation sectors. Climatic events can trigger migration from hazard-prone areas to large cities. But if sufficient livelihood opportunities are available, improved resilience of towns or urban centres close to major cities may play a role in diverting migrants from the large cities. The situation in Naopara was investigated to see what investments would need to be made in the town to make it an attractive option for migrants. ~The findings indicate that Naopara lacks access to basic services such as safe water and sanitation, with only one per cent of households being covered by the municipal water supply. The rest are dependent on hand tube wells and other sources. In particular, poor communities lack access to safe water because they do not have their own land, or the economic capacity to afford a tube well. Additionally, the lack of proper drainage systems, adequate sanitation facilities and waste management facilities increases the vulnerability of those communities during hazards. Climate change-induced hazards such as intense rainfall, cyclones, flooding and salinity intrusion are expected to exacerbate this. In order to address these limitations, the appropriate institutional support from the government, and collaboration among stakeholders, including public-private partnerships and community-based organisations, can play a key role. The preparation and implementation of a city resilience plan could eventually attract displaced people to smaller towns such as Naopara.
Categories: Climate Change

Climate-Smart Pro-Poor Conservation: An evolving framework for exploring conservation programmes

Climate change group publications - 1 May 2016 - 12:00am
The terms 'Climate-Smart Conservation' and 'Pro-Poor Conservation' are both established in the conservation lexicon. However, the combined term - Climate Smart, Pro-Poor Conservation (CSPPC) - is not. CSPPC is a new and innovative approach to conservation pioneered by WWF-UK and the WWF Programmes with whom it works. While there is no blueprint approach to CSPPC, a review of the literature highlights a number of key principles or characteristics. In this WWF-published briefing we present a framework to support conservation managers, project teams and other interested parties in exploring and understanding different programmes’ approaches to CSPPC.
Categories: Climate Change

Définition des mesures de compensation des exploitants non-propriétaires de Kandadji au Niger

Climate change group publications - 1 May 2016 - 12:00am
Construction of the Kandadji dam in Niger will involve, among other consequences, the appropriation of agricultural land owned by customary holders but also in many cases sub-holdings of other non-landowners. The government offered a long lease of 50 years for owners in compensation for their expropriated property rights. But how should the State compensate for the loss of the right of use by non-landowners working on expropriated land? This working paper addresses the issue.~~The study, conducted by a team consisting of a lawyer and a sociologist, used a participatory methodology where all stakeholders were involved. The consultants met with local actors in villages, especially those affected by the construction of the dam, to collect data and information on the basis of access and use of land in the area, and the expectations raised around access to lands managed by the Kandadji programme.~~The consultants also reviewed studies and recent work on the question of expropriation and compensation of land, and analysed the legal framework and public policies in place.
Categories: Climate Change

Ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation: strengthening the evidence and informing policy. Research overview and overarching questions

Climate change group publications - 1 May 2016 - 12:00am
‘Ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation: strengthening the evidence and informing policy’ is a four-year project coordinated by IIED, IUCN and UNEP-WCMC as part of the International Climate Initiative (IKI). It aims to test the effectiveness of ecosystem-based approaches to adapting to climate change, determine the obstacles to their implementation, and influence policy. This background paper presents the overarching questions that the research component of the project is setting out to address.
Categories: Climate Change

Gender needs and roles in building climate resilience in Hue City, Vietnam

Climate change group publications - 1 May 2016 - 12:00am
Gender roles in building climate resilience are an emerging issue worldwide – so it is important to understand the drivers of gender-specific vulnerabilities, needs and capacities with respect to climate change. These include health and social, political and economic contexts, which, when combined with other social changes such as urbanisation, are likely to exacerbate climate change impacts.~~This working paper examines gender roles in building climate resilience in Hue City. We conducted participatory research in 12 wards using the City Resilience Framework (Arup, 2014) to engage with local authorities, people and city planners. Hue City has its own special identity that significantly influences its resilience to climate change: health and well-being have been improved by investment in healthcare. The society and economy of Hue is more stable than many other cities. The municipal government has taken some action to improve climate change resilience while the infrastructure and environment have been considerably upgraded, contributing to better resilience.~~In relation to gender roles, our study found that men and women at a grassroots level have different vulnerabilities and contribute differently to building climate resilience in Hue City. Women play key roles in sustaining and enhancing the health and well-being of people within their community, and accruing funds for households, communities and society. They also take part in organising mutual support for each other during times of disruption. By comparison, men are more engaged in activities relating to safety, security and other continuity plans within their communities. However, at the management level, we found that women hold only minor roles. There are therefore significant opportunities to challenge gender-based conceptions of capacity and responsibility, and to improve the gender sensitivity of decision-making processes and forums. This could significantly enhance the resilience of the people living in Hue City.
Categories: Climate Change

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