This study examines the institutional networks required to link processes of community-level deliberation to city- and national-level processes of decision-making and implementation.~~In 2010, the Philippine government introduced a resettlement programme to remove all informal settlers living along vulnerable waterways in Metro Manila. The introduction of the People’s Plan (PP) as the legal framework for the programme has become a formidable tool to address the exclusionary patterns of governance and development that perpetuate informality and push informal settlers to the peripheries of social, economic and political life in the cities. The PP is expected to improve outcomes for housing and resettlement within the city for the informal settler families in the urban sprawl. However, communities have to comply with the complicated rules and procedures of different agencies and engage with various stakeholders that have disconnected programmes and policies and different interests.~~The study found that the PP unleashed energy and dynamics among stakeholders to address practical matters and open up public and institutional spaces to forge new roles and rules that fit changed circumstances. The PP as a process raised awareness and harnessed the self-initiative, self-responsibility and self-reliance of communities, which are important elements for community resilience. Essentially, the PP is a transformation of the poor and marginalised from ‘informal’ to active citizenship.~~The research was guided by the following questions:~~Will the PP enable poor and marginalised citizens to form new, more empowered types of relationship with the state, civil society and other stakeholders?~~Will it reshape institutional rules and the planning and decision-making process of the government’s housing and resettlement scheme?~~What lessons can be taken from the PP with regard to how ‘climate resilience’ can be built into urban governance programme and planning?
Climate change and biocultural adaptation in mountain communities: second international learning exchange of the International Network of Mountain Indigenous People
The International Network of Mountain Indigenous Peoples (INMIP) aims to exchange traditional knowledge and seeds for climate adaptation and food sovereignty and to protect biocultural heritage and farmers’ rights. It currently includes communities from 10 countries in Latin America and Asia, and is coordinated by ANDES (Peru) and IIED (through the SIFOR project – Smallholder Innovation for Resilience). ~~ANDES and IIED teamed up with the Mountain Society Development Support Programme of the Aga Khan Foundation in Tajikistan and SwedBio at the Stockholm Resilience Centre, to organise the 2nd INMIP learning exchange in Tajikistan on 11–18 September 2015. This report presents the results.
Urbanisation is reshaping the landscape of East Africa. By 2050, the proportion of urban residents in East Africa will increase from 25 to 44 per cent. This dramatic shift is transforming relations between rural and urban areas, particularly as they relate to food security. In urban areas, residents of low-income settlements depend heavily on informal food systems that have been traditionally ignored or penalised by governments. In rural areas, the impacts of climate change are heightening food insecurity and poverty. An emerging narrative views food security through the eyes of low-income~consumers in both rural and urban areas. It seeks to value the role played by informal actors in the food system, and to give a greater voice to the poor wherever they live.
This paper examines the linkages between decentralisation and urban climate governance through a literature review, supported by two city case studies: Saint-Louis in Senegal and Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso. ~~The paper explores how urban development needs, and the responsibilities, policies and processes required to meet them, are shaped, facilitated or constrained in a context of decentralisation. The case studies demonstrate that there have been a number of initiatives seeking to address climate change, nationally and locally. ~~However, decentralisation needs to progress further: there remains confusion due to overlapping roles and responsibilities between the central government and agencies acting at different levels, and financing at the city scale remains a challenge.
The important global, national and local benefits provided by protected areas may come at a cost to communities, and any resultant experience of injustice can undermine protected area conservation. Conversely, the success of many areas conserved by Indigenous Peoples and local communities makes a compelling case for the stronger engagement of local rights-holders and stakeholders in all types of protected area. The Convention on Biological Diversity recognises the need to govern and manage protected areas effectively and equitably; this briefing provides an equity framework to support policymakers, protected area managers, Indigenous Peoples, local communities and other local stakeholders in achieving this.
Aid and business for sustainable development. Emerging lessons from effective aid-business partnerships for sustainable development
The year 2015 was pivotal in moving towards a fairer, more sustainable world. The global Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change aimed to address some of the greatest~challenges facing humanity, including climate change,environmental degradation and the persistent disparity between rich and poor. To deliver on the post-2015 agenda, it is clear that traditional forms~of development aid will no longer be adequate and that new forms of governance, partnerships and financing – particularly between public, private and informal economy actors – will be required. This report draws on a series of case studies to consider what works, bringing together an initial evidence base to help inform effective aid and business intervientions for sustainable development, with a particular focus on those which involve and support small- and medium-scale businesses.
Financing sanitation for low-income urban communities: Lessons from CCODE and the Federation in Malawi
Like many other countries in the Global South, Malawi has failed to meet Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets to improve access to sanitation. It has been estimated that only 25 per cent of the country’s population has gained access to improved sanitation since 1990 and access to it is a meagre 41 per cent, according to the latest Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) Report (2015).~~By utilising social capital and promoting ecological sanitation, CCODE (an SDI affiliate), has enabled thousands of urban poor households, who could not afford better toilets, to live a dignified life. This study shows that the CCODE model could do this for most of Malawi’s urban poor.
Pour être effi cace, les fonds climat doivent toucher les communautés qui en ont le plus besoin, répondre à leurs priorités et être employés pour financer des solutions qui marchent bien sur le terrain. Pour y parvenir, les mécanismes requis doivent être mis en place pour acheminer l’argent du niveau national jusqu’aux~communautés locales d’une manière qui soit transparente, participative et efficace. L’architecture institutionnelle des structures publiques décentralisées existantes~fournit un cadre prêt à l’emploi qui offre un bon rapport qualité-prix et qui sera durable à mesure que les flux de fi nancement augmenteront à l’avenir.
Hilsa shad (Tenualosa ilisha) is one of the most important tropical fish of the Indo-Pacific region, especially in Bangladeshi waters. The hilsa fishery has declined significantly since 2002 mainly due to overfishing, habitat destruction and pollution; the Government of Bangladesh and researchers are therefore working to ensure its sustainable management. This study on hilsa food and feeding ecology offers essential information for policymaking and the effective management of the hilsa fishery. It is based on a year-long study of hilsa specimens collected from the Meghna River at Chandpur across a range of age groups, from fry to adult. An analysis of the specimens’ gut contents, and of the water itself, identified a range of phytoplankton and zooplankton genera; it also established the hilsa’s food preferences at various stages in the life cycle using Ivlev’s ‘electivity index’.
This working paper summarises a series of interviews with non-governmental organisation (NGO) leaders in middle- and low-income countries, and highly experienced development practitioners. The interviews provide insights into how NGOs in the global South are addressing disruption in their external and internal operating environments, and their unique perspective on what, in practice, ‘disruptive change’ means to them. The aim of this paper is to share the principal insights with donors and international NGOs to help inform funding and development strategies and operating practices, and enable them to ore effectively support Southern NGOs facing uncertain and turbulent operating environments daily, while minimising the potential of those organisations to act as ‘disruptors’ themselves
Vendors in African informal settlements play vital but overlooked roles in alleviating food insecurity. Many vendors are women selling affordable food to their fellow residents.~~Using participatory research, we offer a gender-sensitive analysis of how food vending intersects with environmental hazards, insecurity, and governmental neglect in Nairobi’s informal settlements. We argue that improving food security must form part of a wider set of upgrading initiatives to promote jobs, community safety, and political empowerment. Food vendors in informal settlements are a key entry-point for such interventions. By nourishing and recognising these livelihoods, vendors can lead the way towards equitable food systems.
Popular participation was introduced in Bolivia in 1994 as part of comprehensive decentralising reforms. At the time the state, international development donors and commentators suggested that popular participation and decentralisation could help alleviate poverty and inequality, democratise governance and planning processes, and even empower citizens. ~~Over two decades later, the impacts are disputed. There has been extensive analysis of the often-positive implications for low-income rural communities – alongside criticism of the weak institutions and corruption that can undermine the process. There has been less reflection on the impact that this process has had on the development of low-income and informal urban communities.~~This paper outlines how popular participation has been deployed unequally across low-income, peri-urban settlements in the southern zone of Cochabamba. It considers how low-income communities have developed parallel informal participatory institutions at the community level to identify and meet their development needs.
Climate change poses significant disruptions — both positive and negative — to development and the administration of official development assistance (ODA). Many UK-based international civil society organisations (ICSOs) have started integrating climate change into their work. Although plenty of~research has explored the synergies between development and climate change adaptation from a conceptual point of view, it has tended to dilute the experience of ICSOs on the ground. The new structure of climate finance, whereby assistance may be directed through governments, will have repercussions on ICSOs. This briefing aims to highlight some UK-based ICSOs’ experiences of integrating climate change into development work to help us understand how they can get involved in delivering and implementing climate-informed responses.
This paper brings together the views, analysis and opinions of six women who voluntarily manage the micro-credit programme for housing improvement and work together with IIED – AL.~~The programme has been running since 1988, and has adapted and evolved to different contexts and needs. Inocencia, Marta, Adriana, Irma, Carina, Gloria and Kitty are micro-credit programme promoters who, thanks to their voluntary work and dedication, drive a change in the living conditions in their respective neighbourhoods day by day, paving the way for the issuing of small credits in the form of materials for housing improvement. After ten years of joint management, a discussion among these six women provided the opportunity for analysis and evaluation of the Micro-Credit Fund experience at local level.
Urban poor populations frequently experience disasters of varying typology and intensity. When set against a backdrop of poverty and marginalisation, their needs can be complex.~~As recent urban crises have pushed humanitarian agencies to respond in urban areas, this literature review examines the opportunities and challenges afforded by cash transfer programming in urban areas. The evidence indicates a role for cash transfer programming in first phase urban humanitarian response objectives and potentially contributing to longer-term development objectives. ~~However, effective and sustainable urban humanitarian cash responses demand cooperation, coordination, capacity, commitment and funding across key humanitarian, development and private-sector stakeholders, under the leadership of a strategic and answerable body, which is no easy task.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set a new agenda for development, with the ambitious aim of eradicating extreme poverty within the next 15 years while also recognising environmental limits. ~~This new post-2015 agenda exposes the shortfalls of current approaches and demands a new approach to economic development. African countries are uniquely placed to embrace the new agenda, given adequate strategic support. ~~Drawing on the experience of the African Model Forest Network, this briefing suggests that to be effective, development policy must work at multiple levels, be cross-cutting, and engage the people affected. ~~It explores how a socially integrated approach to landscape policy can effectively contribute towards meeting the SDGs, and achieving sustainable development in Africa.
Annexes to accompany the working paper 'A review of evidence~of humanitarian cash transfer programming in urban areas' available at http://pubs.iied.org/10759IIED.~~Annexes on research methodology, country case studies and key informants.
Plans to improve access to sanitation in towns and cities of the global South are hampered by multiple challenges. One is a lack of reliable information. In particular, global and national-level data often diverge from data on particular settlements, collected by inhabitants of those settlements themselves. Local data highlight the inadequacy of living conditions – and in so doing evidence the difficulties in securing improvements. Another challenge lies in the setting of standards around acceptable sanitation. At a global level, for instance, shared sanitation is not considered part of “improved” sanitation. Yet the reality for many low-income urban populations is that communal sanitation can be hygienic, cost-effective and locally acceptable.~~The difficulties in reaching a consensus around data and standards point to the importance of diverse approaches to increasing and improving sanitation, including considering both on-site and off-site solutions.~~They also highlight how crucial it is for the planning and implementation of all such solutions to be inclusive of those often missing from global debates, such as the low-income urban groups that cannot afford substantial sanitation spending. Financial and political commitments, drawing on the circumstances and approaches articulated by low-income groups themselves, will be key to securing a future in which everyone has access to the sanitation they need.
The nature of food consumption and production is changing. In the past, rural areas produced food primarily for cities. Urban residents often consumed more than they needed, while the poorest rural smallholders often went hungry. Today, rural areas still produce, but they are also consumers, and poor city dwellers now also suffer from hunger. In Kenyan cities, for example, 80 per cent of the low-income populations suffer food insecurity; meanwhile, in Vietnam — one of the world’s largest producers of rice — 55 per cent of rural households are net rice buyers. Given these long-term changes, policymakers must look at food security issues through the lenses of consumption and inclusion, and recognise the crucial interdependence between urbanisation and rural development. Unless food policy reflects this shifting terrain, the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals and the New Urban Agenda will be put at risk.
The importance of effective institutions for development is well established. There is however, a continuing debate on how to stimulate institutional reform within highly complex political and cultural contexts.~~This working paper explores sociological theories of institutional change to consider how service co-production, involving organised communities and state agencies, can influence the systems of rules and behaviours that underpin urban governance. Using examples of co-production in Harare, the paper highlights how the cumulative impact of joint activity has generated small-scale adaptations in the institutionalised practices of public administration – creating spaces of engagement and negotiation leading to incremental institutional change.